Author(s): Nandkumar R. Kadam, Manisha M. Rokade


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2023.00023   

Address: Nandkumar R. Kadam, Manisha M. Rokade
Department of Pharmaceutics, R.G. Sapkal Institute of Pharmacy, Anjaneri, Nashik (MH).
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2023

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into systemic circulation. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of medication delivery such as oral, topical, intravenous, intramuscular, etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. Transdermal drug delivery offers controlled release of the drug into the patient, it enables a steady blood level profile, resulting in reduced systemic side effects and, sometimes, improved efficacy over other dosage forms. The main objective of transdermal drug delivery system is to deliver drugs into systemic circulation through skin at predetermined rate with minimal inter and intrapatient variations. Transdermal drugs are self- contained, discrete dosage form. It delivers a drug through intact skin at a controlled rate into the systemic circulation. Delivery rate is controlled by the skin or membrane in the delivery system. It is a sophisticated complex drug delivery system which is difficult to formulate. It requires specialized manufacturing process/equipment. The materials of construction, configuration and combination of the drug with the proper cosolvent, excipient, penetration enhancer, and membrane are carefully selected and matched to optimize adhesive properties and drug delivery requirements. Several transdermal products and applications include hormone replacement therapy, management of pain, angina pectoris, smoking cessation and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Formulated to deliver the drug at optimized rate into the systemic circulation should adhere to the skin for the expected duration should not cause any skin irritation and/or sensitization, enhancing bioavailability via bypassing first pass metabolism, minimizing pharmacokinetic peaks and troughs, improving tolerability and dosing increasing patient compliance in continuous delivery. This review article provides an overview of TDDS, its advantages over conventional dosage forms, Limitations, various components of Transdermal patches, types of Transdermal patches, methods of preparation and Ideal requirements for TDDS, regulatory issues over transdermal drug delivery, its physicochemical methods of evaluation, therapeutic uses and recent advances in transdermal drug delivery system.1

Cite this article:
Nandkumar R. Kadam, Manisha M. Rokade. Transdermal Drug Delivery System. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023; 13(2):125-9. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2023.00023

Nandkumar R. Kadam, Manisha M. Rokade. Transdermal Drug Delivery System. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023; 13(2):125-9. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2023.00023   Available on:

1.    Aarti N, Louk ARMP, Russsel OP, Richard HG. Mechanism of oleic acid induced skin permeation enhancement in vivo in humans. Journal of Controlled Release, 1995; 37(3): 299- 306.
2.    Aggarwal, G. Development, fabrication and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system- A Review [Internet]. 2009 Available from: fabrication-and-evaluation-transdermal-drug-delivery-system-review, excssed on 19 September, 2013.
3.    Ahad A, Aqil M, Kohli K, Sultana Y, Mujeeb M, Ali A. Transdermal drug delivery.
4.    Aqil M, Ali A, Sultana Y, Dubey K, Najmi AK, Pil-lai KK. In vivo characterization of monolithic matrix type transdermal drug delivery systems of pi-nacidil monohydrate: A technical note. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech, 2006; 7(1): 1-5.
5.    Arunachalam A, Karthikeyan M, Kumar DV, Prathap M, Sethuraman S, Kumar SA et al. Transdermal Drug Delivery System: A review. Current Pharma Research 2010; 1(1):70-81.
6.    Bagyalakshmi J, Vamsikrisna RP, Manavalan R, Ra-vi TK, Manna PK. Formulation development and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of membrane-moderated transdermal systems of ampicillin sodium in ethanol: pH 4.7 buffer solvent system. AAPS PharmSciTech, 2007; 8(1): 1-7.
7.    Bhaskaran S, Harsha NS. Effect of permeation enhancer and iontophoresis on permeation of atenolol from transdermal gels. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2000; 62(6), 424- 426.
8.    Bouwstra JA, Nguyen PL. Skin structure and mode of action of vesicles. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2002; 54(12): 41–55 .
9.    Brown MB, Jones SA. Hyaluronic acid: a unique topical vehicle for localized drug delivery of drugs to the skin. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2000; 19(3): 308-318.
10.    Chakkapan S, Gandhi K, Thomas S, Katkam RR, Puri CP, Shrivastava R. Studies in transdermal drug delivery systems for estradiol. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1994; 56(4): 121-125.
11.    Deshwal S, Verma N. Optimiation techniques in Transdermal Drug Delivery System. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2012; 3(8): 2362-237.
12.    Dey BK, Nath LK, Mohanti B, Bhowmik BB. Development and evaluation of propranolol                 hydrochloride patches by using hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer.
13.    Dimas DA, Dallas PP, Rekkas DM, Choulis NH. Effect of several factors on the mechanical properties of pressure sensitive adhesives used in transdermal therapeutic systems. AAPS PharmSciTech, 2000; 1(2): 80-87.
14.    Dipen MP, Kavitha K. Formulation and Evaluation Aspects of Transdermal Drug Delivery     System.
15.    Divyesh P, Nirav P, Meghal P, Navpreet K. Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Review. International Journal of Biopharmaceutical & Toxicological Research, 2011; 1(1): 61-80.
16.    Donnelly RF, Singh TR, Garland MJ, Migalska K, Majithiya R, McCrudden CM et al. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery. Advanced Functional Materials, 2012; 22(23):4879-4890.
17.    Dubey V, Mishra D, Nahar M, Jain V, Jain NK. Enhanced transdermal delivery of an anti- HIV agent via ethanolic liposomes. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 2010; 6(4): 590–596.
18.    El-Laithy HM, Shoukry O, Mahran LG. Novel sugar esters proniosomes for transdermal delivery of vinpocetine: Preclinical and clinical studies. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2011; 77(1): 43–55.
19.    Foco A, Hadziabdic J, Becic F. Transdermal drug delivery systems. Archives of Medicine, 2004; 58(1): 230-234.
20.    Finnin BC, Morgan TM. Transdermal penetration enhancers: Applications, limitations, and potential. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1999; 88(10): 955.
21.    Flynn GL. Percutaneous absorption. In Bronaugh RL, Maibach HI, Editors. Choosing Candidates for Transdermal Development. Marcel Dekker, NY: CRC Press, 1985; pp 169- 185.
22.    Gandhi K, Monika AD, Kalra T, Singh K. Transdermal drug delivery - A review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 3(3): 379-388.
23.    Gaur KP, Mishra S, Purohit S, Dave K. Transdermal delivery System: A review. Asian journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2009; 2(1):14-20.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Priyanka M. Salve, Shital V. Sonawane, Mayuri B. Patil, Rajendra K. Surawase

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2021.00037         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vishal Kumar, Attish Bhardwaj, Navdeep Singh, Kamya Goyal, Shammy Jindal

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2021.00038         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saudagar R. B., Sarika V. Khandbahale

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2017.00005.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): K.Vijaya Sri, Guda Santhoshini, D. Ravi Sankar, K.Niharika

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00005.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ismail Hussain, Ravikumar, Narayanaswamy VB, Injamamul Haque, Mohibul Hoque

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2016.00030.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Girishchandra R. Mandake, Indrajit S. Patil, Omkar A Patil, Manoj M. Nitalikar, Shriniwas K Mohite

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00012.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Aprajita Shifali, Pravin Kumar, Vinay Pandit

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2021.00012.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ch. Nagadev, M. Durga Srinivasa Rao, P. Venkatesh, D. Hepcykalarani, R. Prema

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00021.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Surekha Baghel, Bina Gidwani, Chanchal Deep Kaur

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2017.00009.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Muhammed Jameel VP, Ravikumar, Narayanaswamy VB

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2016.00017.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Akshay R. Yadav, Shrinivas K. Mohite, Chandrakant S. Magdum

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00028.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saurabh Tiwari, Shweta Singh, Pushpendra Kumar Tripathi, Chetan Kumar Dubey

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2015.00037.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): G. Vasavi, P. Naga Haritha, B. Chandrashekar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00021.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ameena Samreen, Mohammed Riyaz, Amtul Asiya, Nuha Rasheed, Abdul Saleem Mohammad

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2017.00007.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): D.M. Shinkar, Aarif S. Khatik, R.B. Saudagar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2016.00022.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Smita Kolhe, Praveen Chaudhari, Dhananjay More

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Divya B., Sabitha P., Ravindra Reddy, M. Kranthi Kumar Reddy , B.Narasimha Rao

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sudhir Sawant, Ramesh Yamgar

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPSci) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences....... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659 

Recent Articles