Archana R. Pawar, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, R. S. Jadhav
Archana R. Pawar*, Prof. Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, Dr. R. S. Jadhav
Department of Pharmacognosy, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Pravaranagar, Maharashtra, India.
Volume - 10,
Issue - 4,
Year - 2020
There is aday by day increase in demand for alternative and complementary medicines, specifically herbal botanicals, herbal medicines due to various side effects exhibited by conventional drugs. Plants have been the prime most source of medicines since life on earth; more than 55% of existing disease treatments are derived from herbal Sources. Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat health conditions, as well as are widely utilized in health and food industries. Herbal medicine, specially including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the treatment, prevention, and cure of diseases or disorders for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic and pharmacological agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research as well as development. Public awareness on the adverse effects of synthetic chemical products also increased the high demand for herbal products. The study on medicinal plants initiated with extraction procedures that play an important role to the extraction outcomes (e.g. yield and phytochemicals content) and also to the consequent assays performed. A wide range of technologies with various methods of extraction are available nowadays. Various novel techniques including supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave assisted extraction, and Soxhlet extraction have been developed for the extraction of nutraceuticals from the plant in order to decrease the extraction time, shorten the solvent consumption,enhance the quality of extracts and increase the extraction yields. Highly efficient extraction technologies and herbal processing have been developed to obtain the optimal amounts of active ingredients from herbal plants and cope with the increasing demands for herbal products. The paper begins with the brief history of importance of herbals followed by the descriptions of various types of extraction processes with critical analysis of their relative advantage and disadvantages.
Cite this article:
Archana R. Pawar, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, R. S. Jadhav. Recent Advances in Extraction Techniques of Herbals – A Review. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(4):287-292. doi: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00050.8
1. Aziz, R.A., Sarmidi, M.R., Kumaresan, S., 2003. Phytocehemical processing: the next emerging field in chemical engineering aspects and opportunities. J. Kejurut. Kim. Malay. 3, 45–60.
2. Saad B, Azaizeh H, Said O. Tradition and perspectives of Arab herbal medicine: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005;2: 475–9.
3. Ghorbani A. Clinical and experimental studies on polyherbal formulations for diabetes: current status and future prospective. J Integr Med. 2014;12: 336–45.
4. Sarker, S.D. andNahar, L. (2007). Chemistry for Pharmacy Students General, Organic and Natural Product Chemistry. England: John Wiley and Sons. pp 283-359.
5. Mukherjee PK, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK (2011) Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging. Phytomedicine 19: 64-73.
6. Abo, K.A.; Ogunleye, V.O. andAshidi JS (1991). Antimicrobial poteintial of Spondiasmombin, Croton zambesicusand Zygotritoniacrocea. Journal of Pharmacological Research. 5(13): 494-497.
7. Liu, R.H. (2004). Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of Action. Journal of Nutrition. 134(12 Suppl):3479S-3485S.
8. Doughari, J.H.; Human, I.S, Bennade, S. andNdakidemi, P.A. (2009). Phytochemicals as chemotherapeutic agents and antioxidants: Possible solution to the control of antibiotic resistant verocytotoxin producing bacteria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 3(11): 839-848.
9. Nweze, E.L.; Okafor, J.L. andNjoku O (2004). Antimicrobial Activityies of Methanolic extracts of Trumeguineesis (Scchumn and Thorn) and Morindalucindaused in Nigerian Herbal Medicinal practice. Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology. 2(1): 34-46.
10. Verma S and Singh SP, Current and future status of herbal medicines, Veterinary World, 2008; 1(11): 347-350.
11. Moshi MJ, Current and future prospects of integrating traditional and alternative medicine in the management of diseases in Tanzania, Tanzania Health Research Bulletin, 2005; 7(3):159-166.
12. Maria Russo, Carmela Spagnuolo, Idolo Tedesco and Gian Luigi Russo, Phytochemicals in Cancer prevention and therapy: Truth or Dare, Toxins, 2010; 2(4): 517-551.
13. Co, M., Fagerlund, A., Engman, L., Sunnerheim, K., Sjoberg, P.J.R., Turner, C., 2012. Extraction of antioxidants from Spruce (Piceaabies) bark using ecofriendly solvents. Phytochem. Anal. 23, 1– 11.
14. Kothari V, Pathan S, Seshadri S. 2010. Antioxidant activity of M. zapota and C. limon seeds. J. Nat. Remedies. 10: 175-180.
15. Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, and Rakesh DD. 2008. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants. Trieste: ICS UNIDO.
16. Carvalho, R.N., Moura, L.S., Rosa, P.T.V., and Meireles, M.A.A., 2005, Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary (Rosmarinusofficinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 35 (3) 197–204.
17. Meireles, M.A.A., 2003, Supercritical extraction from solid: process design data (2001–2003), Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci., 7 (4-5), 321–330.
18. Calvo, L., Cocero, M., and Díez, J., 1994, Oxidative stability of sunflower oil extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71 (11), 1251– 1254.
19. Özkal, S., Yener, M., and Bayındırlı, L., 2005, Response surfaces of apricot kernel oil yield in supercritical carbon dioxide, LWT Food Sci. Technol., 38 (6), 611–616.
20. Zermane, A., Meniai, A.H., and Barth, D., 2010, Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Algerian rosemary (Rosmarinusofficinalis L.), Chem. Eng. Technol., 33 (3), 489–498.
21. Zermane, A., Larkeche, O., Meniai, A.H., Crampon, C., and Badens, E., 2014, Optimization of essential oil supercritical extraction from Algerian Myrtuscommunis L. leaves using response surface methodology, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 85, 89–94.
22. MdZaidul, I.S., Nik Norulaini, N.A., and Mohd Omar, A.K., 2006, Separation/fractionation of triglycerides in terms of fatty acid constituents in palm kernel oil using supercritical CO2, J. Sci. Food Agric., 86 (7), 1138–1145.
23. Marrone, C., Poletto, M., Reverchon, E., Stassi, A., 1998, Almond oil extraction by supercritical CO2: Experiments and modelling, Chem. Eng. Sci., 53 (21), 3711–3718.
24. Larkeche, O., Zermane, A., Meniai, A.H., Crampon, C., and Badens, E., 2015, Supercritical extraction of essential oil from Juniperus communis L. needles: Application of response surface methodology, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 99, 8–14.
25. Reverchon, E., and Osséo, L.S., 1994, Comparison of processes for the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from soybean seeds, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71 (9), 1007–1012.
26. Salgın, U., 2007, Extraction of jojoba seed oil using supercritical CO2+ethanol mixture in green and high-tech separation process, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 39 (3), 330–337.
27. Xu, J., Chen, S., and Hu, Q., 2005, Antioxidant activity of brown pigment and extracts from black sesame seed (Sesamumindicum L.), Food Chem., 91 (1), 79–83.
28. Palazoglu, T.K., and Balaban, M.O., 1998, Supercritical CO2 extraction of lipids from roasted pistachio nuts, Trans. ASAE, 41 (3), 679–684.
29. Marrone, C., Poletto, M., Reverchon, E., Stassi, A., 1998, Almond oil extraction by supercritical CO2: Experiments and modelling, Chem. Eng. Sci., 53 (21), 3711–3718.
30. Louli, V., Folas, G., Voutsas, E., and Magoulas, K., 2004, Extraction of parsley seed oil by supercritical CO2, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 30 (2), 163–174.
31. Mohameda, R.S., Mansoor, G.A. 2002. The use of supercritical fluid extraction technology in food processing. Food Technol Magazine. The World Markets Research Centre, London, UK.
32. Reverchon E, Marco I. 2006. Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of natural matter. J. Supercrit Fluids. 38: 146-166.
33. Tonthubthimthong P, Chuaprasert S, Douglas P, Luewisutthichat W. 2001. Supercritical CO2 extraction of nimbin from neem seeds an experimental study. J. Food Eng. 47: 289-293.
34. Patil, P.S. andShettigar, R. (2010). An advancement of analytical techniques in herbal research J. Adv. Sci. Res. 1(1); 08-14.
35. Ahuja, S., and Diehl, D. 2006. Sampling and Sample prepration. In: Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 47 (Eds.), S Ahuja, and N Jespersen, Oxford, UK: Elsevier (Wilson and Wilson) Chap-2, pp.15-40.
36. Delazar A, Nahar L, Hamedeyazdan S, Sarker SD. Microwave-assisted extraction in natural products isolation. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 864:89-115
37. Gordy WWV, Smith RF Trambarulo. Microwave Spectroscopy. Wiley, New York. 1953.
38. Goldman R. Ultrasonic Technology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1962.
39. Jain T, Jain V, Panday R, Vyas A, Shukla SS. 2009. Microwave assisted extraction for phytoconstituents - An overview. Asian J. Res. Chem. 2: 19-25.
40. Hemwimon S, Pavasant P, Shotipruk A. 2007. Microwave assisted extraction of antioxidativearthraquinones from roots of Morindacitrifolia. Sep. Purif. Technol. 54: 44-50.
41. Letellier M, Budzinski H. 1999. Microwave assisted extraction of organic compounds. EDP Sciences, Wiley-VCH, Analysis. 27: 251-271.
42. Kaufmann BA, Christen P. 2002. Recent extraction techniques for natural products: microwaveassisted extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. Phytochem. Anal. 13: 105-113.
43. Chemat F, Cravotto G. Microwave‑assisted extraction for bioactive compounds. Boston: Springer; 2013.
44. Vinatoru M, Mason TJ, Calinescu I. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of functional compounds from plant materials. TrAC Trends Anal Chem. 2017;97: 159–78
45. Barba FJ, Zhu Z, Koubaa M, Sant’Ana AS, Orlien V. Green alternative methods for the extraction of antioxidant bioactive compounds from winery wastes and by‑products: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2016;49: 96–109.
46. Chemat F, Rombaut N, Sicaire AG, Meullemiestre A, Fabiano‑Tixier AS, Abert‑Vian M. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review. UltrasonSonochem. 2017;34: 540–60.
47. Dai J, Mumper RJ. 2010. Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules. 15: 7313-7352.
48. Huaneng X, Yingxin Z, Chaohong H. 2007. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of isoflavones from stem of PuerariaLobata (Willd.) Ohwi and its mathematical model. Chin J. Chem. Eng. 15: 861-867.
49. Baig S, Farooq R, Rehman F. 2010. Sonochemistry and its industrial applications. World Appl. Sci. J. 10: 936-944.
50. Wei Q, Yang GW, Wang XJ, Hu XX, Chen L. The study on optimization of Soxhlet extraction process for ursolic acid from Cynomorium. ShipinYanjiu Yu Kaifa. 2013;34(7):85–8.
51. Chin FS, Chong KP, Markus A, Wong NK. Tea polyphenols and alkaloids content using soxhlet and direct extraction methods. World J Agric Sci. 2013;9(3):266–70.
52. Xu FX, Yuan C, Wan JB, Yan R, Hu H, Li SP, Zhang QW. A novel strategy for rapid quantification of 20(S)‑protopanaxatriol and 20(S)‑protopanaxadiolsaponins in Panaxnotoginseng, P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium. Nat Prod Res. 2015;29(1):46–52.
53. Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, Rakesh DD (2008) Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, (1stedn), no. 66. Italy: United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology.
54. Naudé Y, De Beer WHJ, Jooste S, Van Der Merwe L, Van Rensburg SJ (1998)Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of DDT, DDD and DDE in sediment. Water SA 24: 205-214.
55. Methods Optimization in Accelerated Solvent Extraction in Technical note (2013) 208: 1-4.
56. Amid, Salim RJ, Adenan M (2010) The Factors Affecting the Extraction Conditions for Newroprotective Activity of Centellaasiatica evaluated by MetalChelating Activity Assay. J ApplSci 10: 837-842.