Kalyani K, Sailaja B
Kalyani K*, Sailaja B
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati, Chitoor, District, Pin Code 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Volume - 12,
Issue - 4,
Year - 2022
Urolithiasis is recurrent common urological disorder with high prevalence throughout the worldwide. The prevalence of kidney stones is influenced by no. of factors such as geographic location, lifestyle, race and other factors. Although a number of invasive and non-invasive surgical treatment methods are available, due to the involvement of high cost, side effects like renal tract damage, fertility problems and possibility of recurrence of stones, limited their use. Herbal medicines have been in vogue as alternative treatment option for prevention and treatment of renal stones in different countries due to the benefits like safety, economic and less chances of recurrence. Herbal medicines contain single or many herbs which have complex chemical compounds. Appropriate quality control and standardization methods are required for herbal medicines to ensure their quality, safety and efficacy. Analytical methods such as UV, IR, NMR, and TLC, HPTLC, HPLC and hyphenated techniques such as LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-NMR have been established as significant role in estimation of phytoconstituents of herbal formulations useful in urolithiasis. Several standardized protocols are reported on authentication of herbs, isolation, characterization and estimation of active phytochemicals. The present review discusses on various herbal medicines used in renal stone treatment such as marketed formulations of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy and analytical methods available for the estimation of their active constituents.
Cite this article:
Kalyani K, Sailaja B. An Overview on Analytical methods for Bioactive markers used in Urolithiasis. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(4):321-8. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00055
Kalyani K, Sailaja B. An Overview on Analytical methods for Bioactive markers used in Urolithiasis. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(4):321-8. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00055 Available on: https://ajpsonline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-12-4-11
1. Archana RD, et al. Herbal Therapy for Urolithiasis: A Brief Review. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2013; 5(1): 06-12.
2. Arvind SB, et al. Standardization of herbal drugs: An overview. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2015;4(9): 100-104.
3. Vinod M, et al. A Brief Review on Herbal Medicines. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2021; 13(2):101-102. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2021.00016.
4. Tripti J, et al. Regulatory Status of Traditional Medicines in Different Countries: An Overview. July 2011; 4(7): 1007-1015.
5. Dawson CH, Tomson CR. Kidney stone disease: pathophysiology, investigation and medical Treatment. Clinical Medicine. 2012; 12(5):467–471. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.12-5-467
6. Miller NL, Evan AP, Lingeman JE. Pathogenesis of Renal Calculi. Urologic Clinics of North America. 2007; 34(3):295-313.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2007.05.007
7. Anuragh S, Chitra. V. A Probe on the activity of Herbal Medicines in Nephrolithiasis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2019; 12(9):4539-4544. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00781.9
8. Thenmozhi P, et al. Overview on selected medicinal plants used in the management of urolithiasis. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 5(10): 280-294. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201610-7770
9. Ahmad M, et al. Clinical efficacy of Unani medicine Renax for treatment of Urolithiasis. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 September; 30(5):2003-2006.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332868468
10. Khan MS, Lari QH, Khan MA. Unani concept of nephrolithiasis (hisat-e-kulyah) and its management: An overview. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2016; 2(5):247-52.
11. Khan MS. Effect of Unani Formulations on Ureteric Calculus (HISAT-E-HALIB) – A Case Report. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019; 6(1): 649-652.www.ejbps.com
12. Kalpanadevi M, Madankumar S. Management of Renal Calculi through Naturopathy and Yoga, Clinical Naturopathy - A Manual for Physicians and Students (National institute of naturopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, Bapu Bhavan, Pune). 2017: 494-506.
13. Masoumeh M. Yoga has therapeutic intervention in patients with kidney chronic diseases. Journal of paediatric Nephrology. 2014; 22(4):129-131.
14. Srinivasa AKB, et al. Antiurolithiatic activity of Gokhsuradi Churan, an ayurvedic formulation by in vitro method. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2013;3(2): 477–479. https://doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.080
15. Vimalavathini R,et al. In vitro anti-urolithic activity of Chandraprabavathi-A herbo-mineral formulation. World journal of Advanced Research and Reviews. 2019; 03(03):038-040. https://doi.org/10.30574/wjarr
16. Bhandari R,et al. In-vitro Comparison of Anti-urolithiatic Effect of Crataeva nurvala, Zea mays (Corn Silk) and Ayurvedic Formulation Neeri Tablet. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2021; 66(1):26–30. https://doi.org/10.47583/ijpsrr.2021.v66i01.007
17. Khandare D. Role of stonvil capsule with varunadi kwath in renal and ureteric calculi, AncSci Life, 32 (2) (2013) S81. https://doi.org/10.4103/0257-7941.123907
18. ShekarKumaran MG, Patki PS. Evaluation of an Ayurvedic formulation (Cystone), in urolithiasis: A double blind, placebo-controlled study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2011;3(1):23–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2011.02.003
19. Singh I, et al. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm) Nephrolithiasis. Urology annals. 2011;3(2): 75–81. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-7796.82172
20. Singla RK, et al. In-Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Five Drugs of Trinapanchamool. Pharmacologyonline. 2011:1153–1159. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/231295792
21. Kumari C, et al. Formulation of hajral yahud pishti and its in vitro antiurolithiatic effect. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2018; 11(2): 370–378. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i2.23385
22. Dar SA,et al. Sub-chronic oral toxicity study of Kushta Hajrul-Yahood (A Herbo-mineral Unani formulation) in Wistar rats, Journal of applied Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 6(11):105–113. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2016.601117
23. Ahmad W, et al. Quality control analysis of Safoof-e-Pathar phori: Antiurolithiatic formulation. Drug Development and Therapeutic.2016; 7(1):20-25. https://doi.org/10.4103/2394-6555.180163
24. Shamsul STH, Clinical evaluation of majoon sang-e-sarmahi and sharbat buzoori motadil sada in nephrolithiasis (Hisat-e-Kulliyah): A case study. International journal of Unani and integrative Medicine. 2020; 4 (2): 48–50. http://www.unanijournal.com
25. Makbul AAS, Jahan N. Acute and sub acute toxicity study of hydroalcoholic extract of unani formulation: (majoonhajrulyahood) used in urolithiasis. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2020; 11 (11):5694–5702. https://doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.11(11).5694-02
26. Ahmad M. et al. Clinical efficacy of Unani medicine Renax for treatment of Urolithiasis.Pakisthan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30(5): 2003-2006.
27. Sivaraman D, et al. Exploration of anti-urolithiasis potential of traditional siddha formulations Amukkara chooranam and Karisalai karpam chooranam by struvite crystal growth inhibition assay. Pharmacognosy Journal 2019; 11 (4): 683–688. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2019.11.108
28. Kanakavalli K, et al. Lithotriptic Activity of Siddha Drug Megarajanga Chooranam on Ethylene Glycol Induced Urolithiasis in Rats. International Journal of Pharma Research and Review.2013; 2(5):24-32.
29. Sofia HN, Manickavasakam K. A Pilot Study Evaluating Therapeutic Efficacy of Siddha Formulation ‘Nandukkal Parpam’ in the Management of Renal Calculi. Current Traditional Medicine.2015; 1(2):98–102. https://doi.org/10.2174/2215083801666150701164118.
30. Bernath P. A prospective open labelled phase-ii non-randomized clinical trial on herbal formulation of “nerunjiverkudineer” for the treatment of “kalladaippu” (urolithiasis).2019.
31. Mariappan A, Ganapathy G, Banumathi V. Anti-Urolithiatic Evaluation of Siddha formulation Seenakara Parpam against Zinc Disc Implantation induced Urolithiasis in Wistar Albino Rats. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biology. 2016; 3(12) 7–13. https://doi.org/10.22192/ijarbs
32. Veeraraghavan G, et al. Scientific validation of Siddha formulation Sirupeelai Samoola Kudineer in the treatment of renal calculi in zinc implantation model. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2015; 14 (4) :650-657.
33. Antony Duraichi R. Pre-clinical study of Siddha drug Venkara Chunnam for its lithotriptic, diuretic, antispasmodic activities. 2019.
34. Hati AK, et al. Successful treatment of ureteric calculi with constitutional homoeopathic medicine Lycopodium clavatum: A Case report. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2018;8(6):1–7. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i6.2043
35. Nayak C, Sahoo AR, Nayak C. Thlaspi bursa pastoris in Treatment of Urinary Stones: A Case Series. Homeopathy. 2020; 109 (4) :238–242. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709705
36. Gautam A, et al. Protective effect of Polyherbal syrup and tablet against Ethylene glycol induced Urolithiasis in rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021 Jan 29;14(1):249-53. DOI:10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00044.5
37. Karthikeyan R, et al. Isolation, characterization and RP-HPLC estimation of berberine in homeopathic formulation. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2014; 3(4):31-37. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/201386
38. Abhijit C, et al. Renal Calculi: An Evidence Based Case Study. Research and Analysis Journal of Applied Research. 2015;1 (7) : 227–234. https://doi.org/10.18535/rajar/v1i7.01
39. Suman S, Daharwal SJ. Extensive review on the analytical methods for the estimation of Thuja occidentalis homeopathic mother tincture. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2019; 12(9):4523-4530. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00779.0
40. Dheepa A, Chandrasekar R, Sivagami B. A Critical Review on Antiurolithiatic Activity of Bioactive Phytoconstituents. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2021; 13(2):95-100. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2021.00015
41. Khokhlenkova NV, Principles of the Urolithiasis Phytotherapy. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(9):4559-4664. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00784.4
42. Karthikeyan R, SukumarBabu C, SrinivasaBabu P, Quantitative analysis of berberine in homeopathic formulation containing berberis vulgaris l. by uv. Electronic Journal of Biosciences.2014; 2(1): 91–98. http://ejbios.co.in
43. Rashmi, Jagadish P, Rajasekaran A. HPTLC fingerprinting profile of marker compound (Berberine) in roots of Berberis aristata DC. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2011;3(19): 41–44. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2011.19.8
44. Pradhan D, Biswasroy P, Suri KA. Isolation of Berberine from Berberis vulgaris Linn. And Standardization of Aqueous extract by RP-HPLC. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2013; 1(2):106-111. www.florajournal.com
45. Naaz I, Ali AS. Identification and characterization of bioactive compound berberine in the Berberis vulgaris root extract using HR-LC-MS analysis. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;7 (4):146-150. https://doi.org/10.15406/japlr.2018.07.00268.
46. Tan MCS, et al. Chemical characterization of Berberis vulgaris L. Var. asperma edible berries, Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 2018; 22 (4):579–585. https://doi.org/10.17576/mjas-2018-2204-02
47. Da Silva BP, Parente JP. Three new steroidal saponins from Smilax officinalis, ZeitschriftfürNaturforschung B6 .2008; 3 (1):95-100.
48. Ranilla LG, et al. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America, Biortech.2010; 101 (12): 4676-4689.http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.01.093
49. Hwang SH, et al. Analytical Method for the Validation of Three Polyphenols as a Marker Compound for the Standardization of Solidagovirgaurea subsp. gigantea Extracts and Antiadipogenesis of Harvesting Time and Location. Journal of Analytical methods in Chemistry. 2017; 1-9.https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3047408
50. Pietta P, et al. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of flavonol glycosides of Solidagovirgaurea, Journal of Chromatography. 1991; 558 (1):296-301.
51. Albayrak S, et al. A comparative study on phenolic components and biological activity of some Senecio species in Turkey. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy. 2014; 66(11):1631-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12288
52. Pramod K, Ansari SH, Ali H. Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method for the quantitative estimation of eugenol. Asian Jornal of Pharmacy and Analysis. April- June 2013; 3(2):58-61.
53. Joshi A, Sharma V, Dubey BK. Development of an analytical method to determine eugenol concentrations in alcoholic extracts of different species of ocimum’s. International Journal of Phytopharmacy. 2011;1 (2):35-42.https:doi.org/10.7439/ijpp.v1i2.179
54. Berhow MA, Affum AO, Gyan BA. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimumcanum Sims grown in Ghana, Journal of Medicinal Food, 2012;15(7):611-20.https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2011.0278
55. Smita K, Manjunath KI, Sarangi SI. Evaluation of α-Glucosidase inhibitory potential of methanolic leaf extrac of Ocimumcanum. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 10 (1):126-31.https://doi.org/10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i1.22268
56. Verma SC,et al. Rapid extraction, isolation, and quantification of oleanolic acid from Lantana camara L. roots using microwave and HPLC-PDA techniques, Acta Chromatographica. 2013; 25 (1):181-199.
57. Song M,et al. Determination of oleanolic acid in human plasma and study of its pharmacokinetics in Chinese healthy male volunteers by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2006 Jan 23; 40(1):190-6.
58. Pandey DK, Malik T, Banik RM, Validated HPTLC method for quantification of variability in content of oleanolic acid in different variety of Lantana camara. Pharmacologia.2013; 4(2):126-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bfopcu.2016.11.002
59. Nagarajan K,et al. Phytochemical extraction, optimization and physico-chemical characterization of two bioactive isolates from the leaves and stem of Cissampelospareir. Der Pharma Chemica. 2011; 3(1):327-37.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228058180
60. Archana RD, Yeligar VC. In- vitro Protective and Curative effect of Cissampelos pareira Linn, Fragaria vesca Linn and Biophytum sensitivum Linn extracts on Urolithiasis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(4):1841-1846. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00332.7