Author(s): Kalyani K, Sailaja B


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00055   

Address: Kalyani K*, Sailaja B
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati, Chitoor, District, Pin Code 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 12,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2022

Urolithiasis is recurrent common urological disorder with high prevalence throughout the worldwide. The prevalence of kidney stones is influenced by no. of factors such as geographic location, lifestyle, race and other factors. Although a number of invasive and non-invasive surgical treatment methods are available, due to the involvement of high cost, side effects like renal tract damage, fertility problems and possibility of recurrence of stones, limited their use. Herbal medicines have been in vogue as alternative treatment option for prevention and treatment of renal stones in different countries due to the benefits like safety, economic and less chances of recurrence. Herbal medicines contain single or many herbs which have complex chemical compounds. Appropriate quality control and standardization methods are required for herbal medicines to ensure their quality, safety and efficacy. Analytical methods such as UV, IR, NMR, and TLC, HPTLC, HPLC and hyphenated techniques such as LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-NMR have been established as significant role in estimation of phytoconstituents of herbal formulations useful in urolithiasis. Several standardized protocols are reported on authentication of herbs, isolation, characterization and estimation of active phytochemicals. The present review discusses on various herbal medicines used in renal stone treatment such as marketed formulations of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy and analytical methods available for the estimation of their active constituents.

Cite this article:
Kalyani K, Sailaja B. An Overview on Analytical methods for Bioactive markers used in Urolithiasis. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(4):321-8. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00055

Kalyani K, Sailaja B. An Overview on Analytical methods for Bioactive markers used in Urolithiasis. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(4):321-8. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00055   Available on:

1.    Archana RD, et al. Herbal Therapy for Urolithiasis: A Brief Review. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2013; 5(1): 06-12.
2.    Arvind SB, et al. Standardization of herbal drugs: An overview. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2015;4(9): 100-104.
3.    Vinod M, et al. A Brief Review on Herbal Medicines. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2021; 13(2):101-102. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2021.00016.
4.    Tripti J, et al. Regulatory Status of Traditional Medicines in Different Countries: An Overview. July 2011; 4(7): 1007-1015.
5.    Dawson CH, Tomson CR. Kidney stone disease: pathophysiology, investigation and medical Treatment. Clinical Medicine. 2012; 12(5):467–471. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.12-5-467
6.    Miller NL, Evan AP, Lingeman JE. Pathogenesis of Renal Calculi. Urologic Clinics of North America. 2007; 34(3):295-313.
7.    Anuragh S, Chitra. V. A Probe on the activity of Herbal Medicines in Nephrolithiasis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2019; 12(9):4539-4544. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00781.9
8.    Thenmozhi P, et al. Overview on selected medicinal plants used in the management of urolithiasis. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 5(10): 280-294.
9.    Ahmad M, et al. Clinical efficacy of Unani medicine Renax for treatment of Urolithiasis. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 September; 30(5):2003-2006.
10.    Khan MS, Lari QH, Khan MA. Unani concept of nephrolithiasis (hisat-e-kulyah) and its management: An overview. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2016; 2(5):247-52.
11.    Khan MS. Effect of Unani Formulations on Ureteric Calculus (HISAT-E-HALIB) – A Case Report. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019; 6(1):
12.    Kalpanadevi M, Madankumar S. Management of Renal Calculi through Naturopathy and Yoga, Clinical Naturopathy - A Manual for Physicians and Students (National institute of naturopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, Bapu Bhavan, Pune). 2017: 494-506.
13.    Masoumeh M. Yoga has therapeutic intervention in patients with kidney chronic diseases. Journal of paediatric Nephrology. 2014; 22(4):129-131.
14.    Srinivasa AKB, et al. Antiurolithiatic activity of Gokhsuradi Churan, an ayurvedic formulation by in vitro method. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2013;3(2): 477–479.
15.    Vimalavathini R,et al. In vitro anti-urolithic activity of Chandraprabavathi-A herbo-mineral formulation. World journal of Advanced Research and Reviews. 2019; 03(03):038-040.
16.    Bhandari R,et al. In-vitro Comparison of Anti-urolithiatic Effect of Crataeva nurvala, Zea mays (Corn Silk) and Ayurvedic Formulation Neeri Tablet. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2021; 66(1):26–30.
17.    Khandare D. Role of stonvil capsule with varunadi kwath in renal and ureteric calculi, AncSci Life, 32 (2) (2013) S81.
18.    ShekarKumaran MG, Patki PS. Evaluation of an Ayurvedic formulation (Cystone), in urolithiasis: A double blind, placebo-controlled study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2011;3(1):23–28.
19.    Singh I, et al. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm) Nephrolithiasis. Urology annals. 2011;3(2): 75–81.
20.    Singla RK, et al. In-Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Five Drugs of Trinapanchamool. Pharmacologyonline. 2011:1153–1159.
21.    Kumari C, et al. Formulation of hajral yahud pishti and its in vitro antiurolithiatic effect. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2018; 11(2): 370–378.
22.    Dar SA,et al. Sub-chronic oral toxicity study of Kushta Hajrul-Yahood (A Herbo-mineral Unani formulation) in Wistar rats, Journal of applied Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 6(11):105–113.
23.    Ahmad W, et al. Quality control analysis of Safoof-e-Pathar phori: Antiurolithiatic formulation. Drug Development and Therapeutic.2016; 7(1):20-25.
24.    Shamsul STH, Clinical evaluation of majoon sang-e-sarmahi and sharbat buzoori motadil sada in nephrolithiasis (Hisat-e-Kulliyah): A case study. International journal of Unani and integrative Medicine. 2020; 4 (2): 48–50.
25.    Makbul AAS, Jahan N. Acute and sub acute toxicity study of hydroalcoholic extract of unani formulation: (majoonhajrulyahood) used in urolithiasis. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2020; 11 (11):5694–5702.
26.    Ahmad M. et al. Clinical efficacy of Unani medicine Renax for treatment of Urolithiasis.Pakisthan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30(5): 2003-2006.
27.    Sivaraman D, et al. Exploration of anti-urolithiasis potential of traditional siddha formulations Amukkara chooranam and Karisalai karpam chooranam by struvite crystal growth inhibition assay. Pharmacognosy Journal 2019; 11 (4): 683–688.
28.    Kanakavalli K, et al. Lithotriptic Activity of Siddha Drug Megarajanga Chooranam on Ethylene Glycol Induced Urolithiasis in Rats. International Journal of Pharma Research and Review.2013; 2(5):24-32.
29.    Sofia HN, Manickavasakam K. A Pilot Study Evaluating Therapeutic Efficacy of Siddha Formulation ‘Nandukkal Parpam’ in the Management of Renal Calculi. Current Traditional Medicine.2015; 1(2):98–102.
30.    Bernath P. A prospective open labelled phase-ii non-randomized clinical trial on herbal formulation of “nerunjiverkudineer” for the treatment of “kalladaippu” (urolithiasis).2019.
31.    Mariappan A, Ganapathy G, Banumathi V. Anti-Urolithiatic Evaluation of Siddha formulation Seenakara Parpam against Zinc Disc Implantation induced Urolithiasis in Wistar Albino Rats. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biology. 2016; 3(12) 7–13.
32.    Veeraraghavan G, et al. Scientific validation of Siddha formulation Sirupeelai Samoola Kudineer in the treatment of renal calculi in zinc implantation model. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2015; 14 (4) :650-657.
33.    Antony Duraichi R. Pre-clinical study of Siddha drug Venkara Chunnam for its lithotriptic, diuretic, antispasmodic activities. 2019.
34.    Hati AK, et al. Successful treatment of ureteric calculi with constitutional homoeopathic medicine Lycopodium clavatum: A Case report. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2018;8(6):1–7.
35.    Nayak C, Sahoo AR, Nayak C. Thlaspi bursa pastoris in Treatment of Urinary Stones: A Case Series. Homeopathy. 2020; 109 (4) :238–242.
36.    Gautam A, et al. Protective effect of Polyherbal syrup and tablet against Ethylene glycol induced Urolithiasis in rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021 Jan 29;14(1):249-53. DOI:10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00044.5
37.    Karthikeyan R, et al. Isolation, characterization and RP-HPLC estimation of berberine in homeopathic formulation. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2014; 3(4):31-37.
38.    Abhijit C, et al. Renal Calculi: An Evidence Based Case Study. Research and Analysis Journal of Applied Research. 2015;1 (7) : 227–234.
39.    Suman S, Daharwal SJ. Extensive review on the analytical methods for the estimation of Thuja occidentalis homeopathic mother tincture. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2019; 12(9):4523-4530. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00779.0
40.    Dheepa A, Chandrasekar R, Sivagami B. A Critical Review on Antiurolithiatic Activity of Bioactive Phytoconstituents. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2021; 13(2):95-100. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2021.00015
41.    Khokhlenkova NV, Principles of the Urolithiasis Phytotherapy. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(9):4559-4664. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00784.4
42.    Karthikeyan R, SukumarBabu C, SrinivasaBabu P, Quantitative analysis of berberine in homeopathic formulation containing berberis vulgaris l. by uv. Electronic Journal of Biosciences.2014; 2(1): 91–98.
43.    Rashmi, Jagadish P, Rajasekaran A. HPTLC fingerprinting profile of marker compound (Berberine) in roots of Berberis aristata DC. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2011;3(19): 41–44.
44.    Pradhan D, Biswasroy P, Suri KA. Isolation of Berberine from Berberis vulgaris Linn. And Standardization of Aqueous extract by RP-HPLC. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2013; 1(2):106-111.
45.    Naaz I, Ali AS. Identification and characterization of bioactive compound berberine in the Berberis vulgaris root extract using HR-LC-MS analysis. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;7 (4):146-150.
46.    Tan MCS, et al. Chemical characterization of Berberis vulgaris L. Var. asperma edible berries, Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 2018; 22 (4):579–585.
47.    Da Silva BP, Parente JP. Three new steroidal saponins from Smilax officinalis, ZeitschriftfürNaturforschung B6 .2008; 3 (1):95-100.
48.    Ranilla LG, et al. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America, Biortech.2010; 101 (12): 4676-4689.
49.    Hwang SH, et al. Analytical Method for the Validation of Three Polyphenols as a Marker Compound for the Standardization of Solidagovirgaurea subsp. gigantea Extracts and Antiadipogenesis of Harvesting Time and Location. Journal of Analytical methods in Chemistry. 2017; 1-9.
50.    Pietta P, et al. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of flavonol glycosides of Solidagovirgaurea, Journal of Chromatography. 1991; 558 (1):296-301.
51.    Albayrak S, et al. A comparative study on phenolic components and biological activity of some Senecio species in Turkey. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy. 2014; 66(11):1631-40.
52.    Pramod K, Ansari SH, Ali H. Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method for the quantitative estimation of eugenol. Asian Jornal of Pharmacy and Analysis. April- June 2013; 3(2):58-61.
53.    Joshi A, Sharma V, Dubey BK. Development of an analytical method to determine eugenol concentrations in alcoholic extracts of different species of ocimum’s. International Journal of Phytopharmacy. 2011;1 (2)
54.    Berhow MA, Affum AO, Gyan BA. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimumcanum Sims grown in Ghana, Journal of Medicinal Food, 2012;15(7):611-20.
55.    Smita K, Manjunath KI, Sarangi SI. Evaluation of α-Glucosidase inhibitory potential of methanolic leaf extrac of Ocimumcanum. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 10 (1):126-31.
56.    Verma SC,et al. Rapid extraction, isolation, and quantification of oleanolic acid from Lantana camara L. roots using microwave and HPLC-PDA techniques, Acta Chromatographica. 2013; 25 (1):181-199.
57.    Song M,et al. Determination of oleanolic acid in human plasma and study of its pharmacokinetics in Chinese healthy male volunteers by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2006 Jan 23; 40(1):190-6.
58.    Pandey DK, Malik T, Banik RM, Validated HPTLC method for quantification of variability in content of oleanolic acid in different variety of Lantana camara. Pharmacologia.2013; 4(2):126-31.
59.    Nagarajan K,et al. Phytochemical extraction, optimization and physico-chemical characterization of two bioactive isolates from the leaves and stem of Cissampelospareir. Der Pharma Chemica. 2011; 3(1):327-37.
60.    Archana RD, Yeligar VC. In- vitro Protective and Curative effect of Cissampelos pareira Linn, Fragaria vesca Linn and Biophytum sensitivum Linn extracts on Urolithiasis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(4):1841-1846. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00332.7

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Sarika V. Khandbahale, Kanchan R. Pagar, Rupali. V. Khankari

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00018.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rajashri R. Kulkarni, Dipti G. Phadtare, Ravindra B. Saudagar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2016.00019.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Pradeep Sahu, Neha Pinkalwar, Ravindra Dhar Dubey, Shweta Paroha, Shilpi Chatterjee, Tanushree Chatterjee

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Aashwini A. Gholkar, Yogesh P. Nikam, Krushna K. Zambare, Kavya V. Reddy, Akash D. Ghorpade

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00010.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Amit Roy, Dayananda Bhoumik, Ram Kumar Sahu, Jaya Dwivedi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sunity Singh, Himanshu Joshi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R. B. Saudagar, P. G. Thete

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00019.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Phalguna Yadagiri, Rama Rao Korapati

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Shubham Jaiswal, Sarin A. Chavhan, Sushilkumar A. Shinde, N.K. Wawge

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00029.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Yogita Rayate, Shital Shewale, Aishwarya Patil, Manojkumar Nitalikar, Shrinivas Mohite

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00027.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Namdeo G. Shinde, Bhaskar N. Bangar, Sunil M. Deshmukh, Suyog P. Sulake, Dipak P. Sherekar

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Sowmya, T. Ananthi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sarika V. Khandbahale, Saudagar R. B.

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rutuja Sawant, Aloka Baghkar, Sanjukta Jagtap, Lina Harad, Anagha Chavan, Nilofar A. Khan, Rupali P. Yevale, Mohan K. Kale

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00031.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sarika S. Lokhande

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00032.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R. Ramya, R. Sivasakthi, C. Senthilkumar, J. Anudeepa, N. Santhi , R. Venkata Narayanan

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vaibhav S. Suryawanshi, Akshay R. Yadav, Rushikesh M. Birajdar, Nisha M. Jagtap, Ganesh B. Vambhurkar, Pramod A. Patil

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00009.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPSci) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences....... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659 

Recent Articles