Author(s): Pradnya Gharpankar, Akhila Mariyappan, Payal Oak, Pradnya Kumbhar, Sakshi Gupta, Janvi Yewale


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00015   

Address: Pradnya Gharpankar1, Akhila Mariyappan2, Payal Oak1, Pradnya Kumbhar3, Sakshi Gupta1, Janvi Yewale4
1Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Maharashtra, 402103.
2University of Madras, Triplicane, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600005.
3Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, Maharashtra, 411038.
4JSPMs, Rajarshi Shahu College of Pharmacy and Research, Tathawade, Pune - 411 033.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 12,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2022

Cervical cancer (CC) is a worldwide disease with 97000 of new cases per year occurring in most populated country, India. The objective of this study was to find possible factors which could affect knowledge about CC and, some CC risk factors in our community. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Maharashtra, State of India. Knowledge about CC is modulated by the level of education and the young age of women. Risk factors although universal seem to vary according to the geographical area and the socio-cultural environment where one lives. Some risk factors identified are early onset of sexual intercourse, polygamous marriages, multiple sexual partners, the sexual behavior of the male partner, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Human Deficiency Virus (HIV), and history of genital warts. No enhancement of lifestyle as the voluntary refusal of cervical cancer screening and CC vaccination have also be found to be risky attitudes for CC.

Cite this article:
Pradnya Gharpankar, Akhila Mariyappan, Payal Oak, Pradnya Kumbhar, Sakshi Gupta, Janvi Yewale. Knowledge and Risk factors of Cervical cancer among women in towns of Pune Division - Maharashtra. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(2):91-6. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00015

Pradnya Gharpankar, Akhila Mariyappan, Payal Oak, Pradnya Kumbhar, Sakshi Gupta, Janvi Yewale. Knowledge and Risk factors of Cervical cancer among women in towns of Pune Division - Maharashtra. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(2):91-6. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00015   Available on:

1.    Zohre Momenimovahed and Hamid Salehiniya. Incidence, mortality, and risk factors of cervical cancer in the world. The Vietnamese Journal of Biomedicine Vol 4 No12(2017) /1795-1811.
2.    W. A. Leyden, M. M. Manos, A. M. Geiger, S. Weinmann, J. Mouchawar, K. Bischoff, S. H. Taplin. Cervical cancer in women with comprehensive health care access: Attributable factors in the screening process. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2005; 97(9): 675-683.
3.    C. Jegatha, V. Hemavathy, KR. Vasanthakohila. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge of Women Regarding Cancer Cervix. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(3) : Mar., 2015; Page 335-338.
4.    F. X. Bosch, N. Muñoz. The viral etiology of cervical cancer. Virus Research. 2002; 89(2): 183-190.
5.    Dwira S., Fadhillah M. R., Fadilah F., Azizah N. N, Putrianingsih R., Kusmardi K.. Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kenikir (Cosmos caudatus) against Cervical Cancer Cell Line (HELA). Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(3): 1225-1229.
6.    E. J. Crosbie, M. H. Einstein, S. Franceschi, H. C. Kitchener. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet. 2013; 382(9895): 889-899.
7.    Bhagwan Gamaji Ambhore , Kavita Ambhore. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study of Teenage Mothers about Contraceptives. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2013; 5(3): 162-163.
8.    A. Monie, C.-F. Hung, R. Roden, T. C. Wu. CervarixTM: A vaccine for the prevention of HPV 16, 18-associated cervical cancer. Biologics. 2008; 2: 107.
9.    Nishandhini Marimuthu, Viswanathan T, Mahendran Radha, Jeyabaskar Suganya. Computational Screening of the Phytocompounds from the Plant Ballota nigra Linn against the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2017; 10(9):3095-3097.
10.    E. Roura, X. Castellsagué, M. Pawlita, N. Travier, T. Waterboer, N. Margall, I. T. Gram. Smoking as a major risk factor for cervical cancer and pre-cancer: Results from the EPIC cohort. International Journal of Cancer. 2014; 135(2): 453-466.
11.    S. Vaccarella, J. Lortet-Tieulent, M. Plummer, S. Franceschi, F. Bray. Worldwide trends in cervical cancer incidence: Impact of screening against changes in disease risk factors. European Journal of Cancer. 2013; 49(15): 3262-3273.
12.    P. Mangala Gowri, Beautily, S. Santhalakshmi, M. Nandhini, Tamizharasan M. Assess the factors affecting the non utilization of Cervical Cancer screening services among women attending in nemam Primary Health Center. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(7): 3128-3130.
13.    Amulya Vijay, V. P. Sona, A. Radha, P. Vinayaga Moorthi. A Review on Advancement Perspectives in Cervical Cancer. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2017; 10(12): 4410-4414.
14.    Gallioway DA. Is vaccination against HPV a possibility? Lancet 1998; 351: 22-4.
15.    Jadhav, Kishan L., Priyanka R. Kapare, Divya V. Khairmode, Chaitali H. Keskar, and Akash S. Mali. Genetic Insights of Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis; Complex Biology. Journal of Diseases 5, no. 1 (2018): 10-23.
16.    .Juneja A, Sehgal A, Mitra AB, Pandey A. A Survey on Risk Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer. Indian Cancer Society Indian Journal of Cancer, Vol. 40, No. 1, (January - March 2003).
17.    Krishnaveni K, Rosmi Jose, Sumitha SK, Teena Johny, Shanmuga Sundaram R, Sambathkumar R. A Study on Socio Demographic and Associated Risk Factors for Cancer Patients in Private Cancer Hospital, Bangalore, India. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(2):677-680.
18.    Mali, Akash, Bodake Swapnil, Jadhav Pooja, Mali Dwaraka, and Jurgelevičius Vaclovas. "Past, present and future about Ebola virus diseases: An updated review." Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Community Medicine 2, no. 2 (2016).
19.    Z. Z. Mbulawa, D. J. Marais, L. F. Johnson, A. Boulle, D. Coetzee, A.-L. Williamson. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus and CD4 count on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples. The Journal of General Virology. 2010; 91(12): 3023-3031
20.    L. Pantanowitz, P. Michelow. Review of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and squamous lesions of the uterine cervix. Diagnostic Cytopathology. 2011; 39(1): 65-72.
21.    P. Koskela, T. Anttila, T. Bjørge, A. Brunsvig, J. Dillner, M. Hakama, P. Lenner. Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a risk factor for invasive cervical cancer. International Journal of Cancer. 2000; 85(1): 35-39
22.    J.S. Smith, C. Bosetti, N. Muñoz, R. Herrero, F.X. Bosch, J. Eluf-Neto, R.W. Peeling. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: Apooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study. International Journal of Cancer. 2004; 111(3): 431-439.
23.    Shatha Mahmood Niazi. Assessment the Risk Factors of Twin Pregnancy in Baghdad Iraq. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(7):3251-3254.
24.    M. Plummer, C. de Martel, J. Vignat, J. Ferlay, F. Bray, S. Franceschi. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: A synthetic analysis. The Lancet. Global Health. 2016; 4(9): e609-e616.
25.    Myat Moe Thwe Aung, San San Oo, Azmi Bin Hassan, Safiya Binti Amaran, Megat Mustaqim Bin Megat Iskandar, Aniza Binti Abd Aziz, Rahmah Binti Mohd Amin, Tengku Mohammad Ariff Bin Raja Hussin, Vidya Bhagat. Prevalence Study on Tobacco Smoking and Related Factors of Among Residents of a Suburb Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(5):2430-2438.
26.    Aayarekar, Pradnya, Komal Lokhande, Farida Shaikh, Priyanka Kapare, Kishan Jadhav, Audrius Maruška, and Akash Shivling Mali. "Zika virus disease." International journal of advanced community medicine. Bangladesh.2018, vol. 1,2 (2018).
27.    K. Louie, S. De Sanjose, M. Diaz, X. Castellsague, R. Herrero, C. Meijer, F. Bosch. Early age at first sexual intercourse and early pregnancy are risk factors for cervical cancer in developing countries. British Journal of Cancer. 2009; 100(7): 1191-1197.
28.    Martin CE. Marital and coital factors in cervical cancer. Am J Pub Hlth 1967; 57: 803-14.
29.    Rotkin ID. Epidemiology of cancer of cervix. Sexual characteristics of cervical cancer population. Am J Pub Hlth 1967; 57: 815-29.
30.    Parazzini F, La Vecchia, Negri E, Lecchet G, Fdele L. Reproductive factors and risk of invasive and intraepithelial cervical neoplasms. Br J Cancer 1989; 59: 800-9.
31.    Brinton LA, Famman R, Reeves WC, De Brinton RC, Gaaitan E, Tenorio F. Risk factors for cervical cancer by Histology. Gynecol Oncol 1993; 51:301-6.
32.    Geetha P, Shanmugasundaram P. A Prospective Observational Study on assessment of risk factor associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in south Indian population. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(2):595-599.
33.    Brown S, Vessey M, Harris R. Social class, sexual habits and cancer cervix. Comm Med 1984; 6:281-6.
34.    A. Hildesheim, R. Herrero, P. E. Castle, S. Wacholder, M. Bratti, M. Sherman, A. C. Rodríguez. HPV co-factors related to the development of cervical cancer: Results from a population-based study in Costa Rica. British Journal of Cancer. 2001; 84(9): 1219-1226.
35.    J. Kim, B. K. Kim, C. H. Lee, S. S. Seo, S.-Y. Park, J.-W. Roh. Human papillomavirus genotypes and cofactors causing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in Korean women. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. 2012; 22: 1570-1576.
36.    N. Muñoz, S. Franceschi, C. Bosetti, V. Moreno, R. Herrero, J. S. Smith, F. X. Bosch. Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: The IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet. 2002; 359(9312): 1093-1101.
37.    Sharma HK, Prashar S. Impact of socioeconomic risk factors on carcinoma cervix: Hospital based pap smear screening of 2 years in Bihar. IP Archives of Cytology and Histopathology Research. 2018; 3: 39-42.
38.    Muthulakshmi, Ramya. R. A Study to assess the knowledge of Breast Cancer and awareness of Mammography among women (30-50) in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(10): 4219-4221.
39.    Kaku M, Mathew A, Rajan B. Impact of socio-economic factors in delayed reporting and late-stage presentation among patients with cervix cancer in a major cancer hospital in South India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008; 9: 589-94.
40.    Belglaiaa E, Souho T, Badaoui L, Segondy M, Pretet J-L, Guenat D, et al. Awareness of cervical cancer among women attending an HIV treatment center: A cross-sectional study from Morocco. BMJ Open. 2018;8: e020343
41.    Thulaseedharan JV, Malila N, Hakama M, 28. Esmy PO, Cheriyan M, Swaminathan R, et al. Socio demographic and reproductive risk factors for cervical cancer – a large prospective cohort study from Rural India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(6):2991-5.
42.    Sunita. Application of Knowledge Management in Library and Information Centre. Research J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 4(4): October-December, 2013, 519-522.
43.    Khushboo Brar,Tarundeep Kaur, P. Vadivukarrasi Ramanadin . Knowledge regarding Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) among the Teenage Girls. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research.2016; 4(2):136-140.
44.    V. Indra. A study to assess the Health Seeking Behavior of Women towards Cervical cancer screening among Women in Selected Areas of Puducherry. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research 3(4): Oct.-Dec., 2015; Page 354-362.
45.    List of districts of Maharashtra (
46.    Cancer Statistics - India Against Cancer (
47.    Cervical cancer | National Health Portal Of India (
48.    What Is Cervical Cancer? | Types of Cervical Cancer

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Pradeep Sahu, Neha Pinkalwar, Ravindra Dhar Dubey, Shweta Paroha, Shilpi Chatterjee, Tanushree Chatterjee

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sagar Baral, Deewash Pakhrin Tamang, Sajan Maharjan, Baburam Humagain

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00017.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rahul P. Jadhav, Manohar D. Kengar, Omkar V. Narule, Vikranti W. Koli, Suraj B. Kumbhar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00017.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Varshita Veerni Jaya Ratna, Monika Vempadapu, Raj kiran Kolakota, Vinodkumar Mugada

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00019.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Usama Shoukath, Umama Shoukath, Salma Sultana, Mohammed Nayeem Uddin

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00014.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Md. Yaqub Khan, Poonam Gupta, Dipendu Goswami, Bipin Bihari, Vikas Kumar Verma

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rayate Yogita, Shaikh Samina, Sakhare Pooja, Gandhi Jyotsana

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00018.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Supriya Aldar, Ganesh Deshmukh

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00030.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Savita More, Vijay Raje, Namita Phalke, Sarika Lokhande

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00032.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vinodkumar Mugada, Raj Kiran Kolakota

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00039.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Abdul Kader Mohiuddin

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00012.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Chanchal Deep Kaur

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Arunkumar P.A., Mukund H., Radheshyam N, M.S. Belliyappa

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Puja S. Gaikwad, Dhanshri U.Gadhave, Nayna V. Pimpodkar, Trushali A. Mandhare

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2015.00009.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Laila Ali Layqah, Yousif S. Alakeel, Jinan Z. Shamou

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00030.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPSci) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences....... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659 

Recent Articles