Author(s): Akshay Gade, Rutuja Sawant, Shreya Parkar, Prajakta Kegade


DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00052.1   

Address: Mr. Akshay Gade*, Miss. Rutuja Sawant, Miss. Shreya Parkar, Miss. Prajakta Kegade
Department of Pharmaceutics, M Pharmacy, University of Mumbai, Vidya Nagari, Kalina, Santacruz East, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400098.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 10,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2020

Corona Virus Disease (COVID 19) causes respiratory illness outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December. The COVID 19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2, it is highly infectious respiratory disease including pneumonia, cold, sneezing, and coughing while in the animal it causes diarrhea and upper respiratory diseases. Over the next few weeks, the virus spread from Wuhan to affect different provinces in China, and after a few months, it is now presenting in 109 countries and many more are included in the list with a higher number of patients. These patients having similar symptoms, but the level of infection is different from the patients. The symptoms of COVID 19 in patients mainly include initial cold, mild fever, sore throat with a dry cough, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. Usually the elderly and those with comorbidity, the disease may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ dysfunction. Most of the recently infected people are asymptomatic so it’s a very crucial challenge for the government to diagnose the patients with no symptoms but infected by this disease. The World Health Organization has declared it an International emergency which is the evidence statement that noticed every country to follow the new rules of emergency in their respective countries. Various prevention and treatment measures are followed by various countries to find a way to come out from this pandemic but still, no fully assessed treatment was found. Based on current published evidence, this review systematically summarizes the epidemiology, it's control and prevention. We conducted a literature review of publicly available information about the pathogen and the current epidemic, causative agent, pathogenesis, and immune responses, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of the disease, strategies are all reviewed.

Cite this article:
Akshay Gade, Rutuja Sawant, Shreya Parkar, Prajakta Kegade. SARS-Cov-2 The Beta Genome Coronavirus: A Brief Overview, Pathogenesis and Treatment. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(4):299-310. doi: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00052.1

Akshay Gade, Rutuja Sawant, Shreya Parkar, Prajakta Kegade. SARS-Cov-2 The Beta Genome Coronavirus: A Brief Overview, Pathogenesis and Treatment. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(4):299-310. doi: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00052.1   Available on:

1.    Wang, C.; Horby, P. W.; Hayden, F. G.; Gao, G. F. A Novel Coronavirus Outbreak of Global Health Concern. The Lancet2020, 395 (10223), 470–473.
2.    Coronavirus | Human Coronavirus Types | CDC (accessed May 30, 2020).
3.    A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster - The Lancet lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30154-9/fulltext (accessed May 30, 2020).
4.    Lt, P.; Tv, N.; Qc, L.; Tv, N.; Ht, N.; Hq, L.; Tt, N.; Tm, C.; Qd, P. Importation and Human-to-Human Transmission of a Novel Coronavirus in Vietnam 31991079/ (accessed May 30, 2020). NEJMc2001272.
5.    C, R.; M, S.; P, S.; G, B.; G, F.; C, W.; T, Z.; V, T.; C, J.; W, G.; M, S.; C, D.; P, V.; K, Z.; S, Z.; R, W.; M, H. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection From an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany (accessed May 30, 2020).
6.    M, C.; A, B.; X, M.; N, Z.; M, H.; X, Z.; J, C.; W, X.; Y, Y.; Za, F.; A, J.; K, L.; S, L.; H, S. CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) 32017661/ (accessed May 30, 2020). radiol.2020200230.
7.    Chen, N.; Zhou, M.; Dong, X.; Qu, J.; Gong, F.; Han, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Wei, Y.; Xia, J.; Yu, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, L. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 99 Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Descriptive Study. The Lancet2020, 395 (10223), 507–513. https://
8.    Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation PMC7164637/ (accessed May 30, 2020).
9.    Huang, P.; Liu, T.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lei, M.; Xu, W.; Hu, X.; Chen, J.; Liu, B. Use of Chest CT in Combination with Negative RT-PCR Assay for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus but High Clinical Suspicion. Radiology2020, 295 (1), 22–23. 10.1148/ radiol.2020200330.
10.    Estola, T. Coronaviruses, a New Group of Animal RNA Viruses. Avian Dis.1970, 14 (2), 330–336.
11.    Fabricant, J. The Early History of Infectious Bronchitis. Avian Dis.1998, 42 (4), 648–650.
12.    Decaro, N. Gammacoronavirus‡. The Springer Index of Viruses2011, 403–413.
13.    Abruzzese, E.; Luciano, L.; D’Agostino, F.; Trawinska, M. M.; Pane, F.; Fabritiis, P. de. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A Case Report and Review of ABL Kinase Involvement in Viral Infection: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases2020, 12 (1), e2020031–e2020031.
14.    Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses. Advances in Virus Research. Academic Press https://, pp 163–188. bs.aivir.2018.01.001.
15.    Ruan, S. Likelihood of Survival of Coronavirus Disease 2019. The Lancet Infectious Diseases2020, 20 (6), 630–631. 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30257-7.
16.    Clinical Virology, 4th Edition | Wiley (accessed Jun 6, 2020).
17.    SARS: epidemiology. - Abstract - Europe PMC https:// (accessed Jun 6, 2020).
18.    WHO | Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (accessed Jun 6, 2020).
19.    Bogoch, I. I.; Watts, A.; Thomas-Bachli, A.; Huber, C.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Khan, K. Pneumonia of Unknown Aetiology in Wuhan, China: Potential for International Spread via Commercial Air Travel. J Travel Med2020, 27 (2). taaa008.
20.    Lu, H.; Stratton, C. W.; Tang, Y.-W. Outbreak of Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan, China: The Mystery and the Miracle. J. Med. Virol.2020, 92 (4), 401–402. 10.1002/jmv.25678.
21.    Huang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Ren, L.; Zhao, J.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, G.; Xu, J.; Gu, X.; Cheng, Z.; Yu, T.; Xia, J.; Wei, Y.; Wu, W.; Xie, X.; Yin, W.; Li, H.; Liu, M.; Xiao, Y.; Gao, H.; Guo, L.; Xie, J.; Wang, G.; Jiang, R.; Gao, Z.; Jin, Q.; Wang, J.; Cao, B. Clinical Features of Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet2020, 395 (10223), 497–506.
22.    Bw, N.; Bd, A.; C, Y.; Jd, Q.; G, O.; P, K.; Ra, M.; M, Y.; Mj, B. Supramolecular Architecture of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Revealed by Electron Cryomicroscopy (accessed May 30, 2020).
23.    L, E.; F, A.; I, S.; S, Z. Biochemical Aspects of Coronavirus Replication and Virus-Host Interaction https:// (accessed May 30, 2020).
24.    Mm, L.; D, C. The Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses (accessed May 30, 2020).
25.    [Springer Protocols Handbooks] Animal Coronaviruses __ (accessed May 30, 2020).
26.    Rn, K.; Ca, C.; N, W.; J, P.; Hm, Y.; Hl, T.; Ks, C.; Bs, G.; Js, M.; Ab, W. Pre-fusion Structure of a Human Coronavirus Spike Protein (accessed May 30, 2020).
27.    Ac, W.; Ma, T.; Bj, B.; B, F.; Pjm, R.; F, D.; Fa, R.; D, V. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structure of a Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Trimer (accessed May 30, 2020).
28.    Dr, B.; A, A.; E, G.; Tf, B. Architecture of the SARS Coronavirus Prefusion Spike (accessed May 30, 2020).
29.    F, L.; M, B.; W, L.; M, F.; Pr, D.; Sc, H. Conformational States of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Ectodomain (accessed May 30, 2020).
30.    Perlman, S.; Netland, J. Coronaviruses Post-SARS: Update on Replication and Pathogenesis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol.2009, 7 (6), 439–450.
31.    Pyrc, K.; Berkhout, B.; van der Hoek, L. The Novel Human Coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1. J. Virol.2007, 81 (7), 3051–3057.
32.    Bovine-Like Coronaviruses Isolated from Four Species of Captive Wild Ruminants Are Homologous to Bovine Coronaviruses, Based on Complete Genomic Sequences | Journal of Virology (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
33.    Cavanagh, D. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Vaccine Development: Experiences of Vaccination against Avian Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus. Avian Pathol.2003, 32 (6), 567–582.
34.    Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus. - Abstract - Europe PMC 2612373 (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
35.    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus nsp1 Facilitates Efficient Propagation in Cells through a Specific Translational Shutoff of Host mRNA articles/PMC3457165/ (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
36.    Fehr, A. R.; Perlman, S. Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. Coronaviruses2015, 1282, 1–23.
37.    Cui, J.; Li, F.; Shi, Z.-L. Origin and Evolution of Pathogenic Coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology2019, 17 (3), 181–192.
38.    Zhu, N.; Zhang, D.; Wang, W.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Song, J.; Zhao, X.; Huang, B.; Shi, W.; Lu, R.; Niu, P.; Zhan, F.; Ma, X.; Wang, D.; Xu, W.; Wu, G.; Gao, G. F.; Tan, W.; China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med.2020, 382 (8), 727–733. NEJMoa2001017.
39.    de Vries, A. A. F.; Horzinek, M. C.; Rottier, P. J. M.; de Groot, R. J. The Genome Organization of the Nidovirales: Similarities and Differences between Arteri-, Toro-, and Coronaviruses. Seminars in Virology1997, 8 (1), 33–47. smvy.1997.0104.
40.    A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin | Nature s41586-020-2012-7 (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
41.    Wu, F.; Zhao, S.; Yu, B.; Chen, Y.-M.; Wang, W.; Song, Z.-G.; Hu, Y.; Tao, Z.-W.; Tian, J.-H.; Pei, Y.-Y.; Yuan, M.-L.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Dai, F.-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.-M.; Zheng, J.-J.; Xu, L.; Holmes, E. C.; Zhang, Y.-Z. A New Coronavirus Associated with Human Respiratory Disease in China. Nature2020, 579 (7798), 265–269.
42.    Zhou, P.; Yang, X.-L.; Wang, X.-G.; Hu, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Si, H.-R.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.; Huang, C.-L.; Chen, H.-D.; Chen, J.; Luo, Y.; Guo, H.; Jiang, R.-D.; Liu, M.-Q.; Chen, Y.; Shen, X.-R.; Wang, X.; Zheng, X.-S.; Zhao, K.; Chen, Q.-J.; Deng, F.; Liu, L.-L.; Yan, B.; Zhan, F.-X.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Xiao, G.-F.; Shi, Z.-L. A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated with a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin. Nature2020, 579 (7798), 270–273.
43.    Du, L.; He, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, S.; Zheng, B.-J.; Jiang, S. The Spike Protein of SARS-CoV--a Target for Vaccine and Therapeutic Development. Nat. Rev. Microbiol.2009, 7 (3), 226–236.
44.    Hoffmann, M.; Kleine-Weber, H.; Schroeder, S.; Krüger, N.; Herrler, T.; Erichsen, S.; Schiergens, T. S.; Herrler, G.; Wu, N.-H.; Nitsche, A.; Müller, M. A.; Drosten, C.; Pöhlmann, S. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell2020, 181 (2), 271-280.e8.
45.    CDC. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S. (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
46.    Guo, Y.-R.; Cao, Q.-D.; Hong, Z.-S.; Tan, Y.-Y.; Chen, S.-D.; Jin, H.-J.; Tan, K.-S.; Wang, D.-Y.; Yan, Y. The Origin, Transmission and Clinical Therapies on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak - an Update on the Status. Mil Med Res2020, 7 (1), 11.
47.    Sola, I.; Almazán, F.; Zúñiga, S.; Enjuanes, L. Continuous and Discontinuous RNA Synthesis in Coronaviruses. Annu Rev Virol2015, 2 (1), 265–288.
48.    Zumla, A.; Hui, D. S.; Perlman, S. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Lancet2015, 386 (9997), 995–1007. 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60454-8.
49.    Song, Z.; Xu, Y.; Bao, L.; Zhang, L.; Yu, P.; Qu, Y.; Zhu, H.; Zhao, W.; Han, Y.; Qin, C. From SARS to MERS, Thrusting Coronaviruses into the Spotlight. Viruses2019, 11 (1), 59. https://
50.    JCI Insight - Anti–spike IgG causes severe acute lung injury by skewing macrophage responses during acute SARS-CoV infection (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
51.    Blanco-Melo, D.; Nilsson-Payant, B. E.; Liu, W.-C.; Møller, R.; Panis, M.; Sachs, D.; Albrecht, R. A.; tenOever, B. R. SARS-CoV-2 Launches a Unique Transcriptional Signature from in Vitro, Ex Vivo, and in Vivo Systems. bioRxiv2020, 2020.03.24.004655.
52.    Corman, V. M.; Landt, O.; Kaiser, M.; Molenkamp, R.; Meijer, A.; Chu, D. K.; Bleicker, T.; Brünink, S.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, M. L.; Mulders, D. G.; Haagmans, B. L.; van der Veer, B.; van den Brink, S.; Wijsman, L.; Goderski, G.; Romette, J.-L.; Ellis, J.; Zambon, M.; Peiris, M.; Goossens, H.; Reusken, C.; Koopmans, M. P.; Drosten, C. Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-NCoV) by Real-Time RT-PCR. Euro Surveill.2020, 25 (3).
53.    Fang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Xie, J.; Lin, M.; Ying, L.; Pang, P.; Ji, W. Sensitivity of Chest CT for COVID-19: Comparison to RT-PCR. Radiology2020, 200432. radiol.2020200432.
54.    Perlman, S.; Netland, J. Coronaviruses Post-SARS: Update on Replication and Pathogenesis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol.2009, 7 (6), 439–450.
55.    Dimitrov, D. S. Virus Entry: Molecular Mechanisms and Biomedical Applications. Nat. Rev. Microbiol.2004, 2 (2), 109–122.
56.    Ghosh, A. K.; Gemma, S. Structure-Based Design of Drugs and Other Bioactive Molecules: Tools and Strategies; John Wiley and Sons, 2014.
57.    Js, P.; St, L.; Ll, P.; Y, G.; Ly, Y.; W, L.; J, N.; Wk, Y.; Ww, Y.; Mt, C.; Vc, C.; Kh, C.; Dn, T.; Rw, Y.; Tk, N.; Ky, Y.; undefined. Coronavirus as a Possible Cause of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Lancet2003, 361 (9366), 1319–1325.
58.    Marra, M. A.; Jones, S. J. M.; Astell, C. R.; Holt, R. A.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Butterfield, Y. S. N.; Khattra, J.; Asano, J. K.; Barber, S. A.; Chan, S. Y.; Cloutier, A.; Coughlin, S. M.; Freeman, D.; Girn, N.; Griffith, O. L.; Leach, S. R.; Mayo, M.; McDonald, H.; Montgomery, S. B.; Pandoh, P. K.; Petrescu, A. S.; Robertson, A. G.; Schein, J. E.; Siddiqui, A.; Smailus, D. E.; Stott, J. M.; Yang, G. S.; Plummer, F.; Andonov, A.; Artsob, H.; Bastien, N.; Bernard, K.; Booth, T. F.; Bowness, D.; Czub, M.; Drebot, M.; Fernando, L.; Flick, R.; Garbutt, M.; Gray, M.; Grolla, A.; Jones, S.; Feldmann, H.; Meyers, A.; Kabani, A.; Li, Y.; Normand, S.; Stroher, U.; Tipples, G. A.; Tyler, S.; Vogrig, R.; Ward, D.; Watson, B.; Brunham, R. C.; Krajden, M.; Petric, M.; Skowronski, D. M.; Upton, C.; Roper, R. L. The Genome Sequence of the SARS-Associated Coronavirus. Science2003, 300 (5624), 1399–1404.
59.    Li, W.; Greenough, T. C.; Moore, M. J.; Vasilieva, N.; Somasundaran, M.; Sullivan, J. L.; Farzan, M.; Choe, H. Efficient Replication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Mouse Cells Is Limited by Murine Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. J. Virol.2004, 78 (20), 11429–11433.
60.    Li, F. Receptor Recognition Mechanisms of Coronaviruses: A Decade of Structural Studies. J Virol2014, 89 (4), 1954–1964.
61.    Qu, X.-X.; Hao, P.; Song, X.-J.; Jiang, S.-M.; Liu, Y.-X.; Wang, P.-G.; Rao, X.; Song, H.-D.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zuo, Y.; Zheng, A.-H.; Luo, M.; Wang, H.-L.; Deng, F.; Wang, H.-Z.; Hu, Z.-H.; Ding, M.-X.; Zhao, G.-P.; Deng, H.-K. Identification of Two Critical Amino Acid Residues of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein for Its Variation in Zoonotic Tropism Transition via a Double Substitution Strategy. J. Biol. Chem.2005, 280 (33), 29588–29595.
62.    Li, F.; Li, W.; Farzan, M.; Harrison, S. C. Structure of SARS Coronavirus Spike Receptor-Binding Domain Complexed with Receptor. Science2005, 309 (5742), 1864–1868.
63.    Coronavirus Cases by Country | (accessed Jun 1, 2020).
64.    Cascella, M.; Rajnik, M.; Cuomo, A.; Dulebohn, S. C.; Di Napoli, R. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). In StatPearls; StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL), 2020.
65.    Patel, A.; Jernigan, D. B.; 2019-nCoV CDC Response Team. Initial Public Health Response and Interim Clinical Guidance for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.2020, 69 (5), 140–146. mmwr.mm6905e1.
66.    Adhikari, S. P.; Meng, S.; Wu, Y.-J.; Mao, Y.-P.; Ye, R.-X.; Wang, Q.-Z.; Sun, C.; Sylvia, S.; Rozelle, S.; Raat, H.; Zhou, H. Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) during the Early Outbreak Period: A Scoping Review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty2020, 9 (1), 29. s40249-020-00646-x.
67.    Poudel Adhikari, S.; Meng, S.; Wu, Y.; Mao, Y.; Ye, R.; Wang, Q.; Sun, C.; Sylvia, S.; Rozelle, S.; Raat, H.; Zhou, H. A Literature Review of 2019 Novel Coronavirus During the Early Outbreak Period: Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis, Prevention and Control; preprint; MEDICINE and PHARMACOLOGY, 2020. preprints202002.0060.v1.
68.    National Health Commission of the PRC (accessed Jun 2, 2020).
69.    Chen, N.; Zhou, M.; Dong, X.; Qu, J.; Gong, F.; Han, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Wei, Y.; Xia, J.; Yu, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, L. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 99 Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Descriptive Study. The Lancet2020, 395 (10223), 507–513. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
70.    Bai, Y.; Yao, L.; Wei, T.; Tian, F.; Jin, D.-Y.; Chen, L.; Wang, M. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA2020.
71.    Wang, D.; Hu, B.; Hu, C.; Zhu, F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, J.; Wang, B.; Xiang, H.; Cheng, Z.; Xiong, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Peng, Z. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA2020, 323 (11), 1061–1069. jama.2020.1585.
72.    Huang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Ren, L.; Zhao, J.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, G.; Xu, J.; Gu, X.; Cheng, Z.; Yu, T.; Xia, J.; Wei, Y.; Wu, W.; Xie, X.; Yin, W.; Li, H.; Liu, M.; Xiao, Y.; Gao, H.; Guo, L.; Xie, J.; Wang, G.; Jiang, R.; Gao, Z.; Jin, Q.; Wang, J.; Cao, B. Clinical Features of Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet2020, 395 (10223), 497–506.
73.    A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster - The Lancet lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30154-9/fulltext (accessed Jun 2, 2020).
74.    Chung, M.; Bernheim, A.; Mei, X.; Zhang, N.; Huang, M.; Zeng, X.; Cui, J.; Xu, W.; Yang, Y.; Fayad, Z. A.; Jacobi, A.; Li, K.; Li, S.; Shan, H. CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-NCoV). Radiology2020, 295 (1), 202–207. 10.1148/radiol.2020200230.
75.    Lu, H. Drug Treatment Options for the 2019-New Coronavirus (2019-NCoV). Biosci Trends2020, 14 (1), 69–71. 10.5582/bst.2020.01020.
76.    Zhou, D.; Dai, S.-M.; Tong, Q. COVID-19: A Recommendation to Examine the Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Preventing Infection and Progression. J. Antimicrob. Chemother.2020. 10.1093/jac/dkaa114.
77.    Devaux, C. A.; Rolain, J.-M.; Colson, P.; Raoult, D. New Insights on the Antiviral Effects of Chloroquine against Coronavirus: What to Expect for COVID-19? Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents2020, 55 (5), 105938.
78.    FURUTA, Y.; KOMENO, T.; NAKAMURA, T. Favipiravir (T-705), a Broad Spectrum Inhibitor of Viral RNA Polymerase. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci2017, 93 (7), 449–463. https://
79.    Jacobs, M.; Rodger, A.; Bell, D. J.; Bhagani, S.; Cropley, I.; Filipe, A.; Gifford, R. J.; Hopkins, S.; Hughes, J.; Jabeen, F.; Johannessen, I.; Karageorgopoulos, D.; Lackenby, A.; Lester, R.; Liu, R. S. N.; MacConnachie, A.; Mahungu, T.; Martin, D.; Marshall, N.; Mepham, S.; Orton, R.; Palmarini, M.; Patel, M.; Perry, C.; Peters, S. E.; Porter, D.; Ritchie, D.; Ritchie, N. D.; Seaton, R. A.; Sreenu, V. B.; Templeton, K.; Warren, S.; Wilkie, G. S.; Zambon, M.; Gopal, R.; Thomson, E. C. Late Ebola Virus Relapse Causing Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report. Lancet2016, 388 (10043), 498–503. S0140-6736(16)30386-5.
80.    Holshue, M. L.; DeBolt, C.; Lindquist, S.; Lofy, K. H.; Wiesman, J.; Bruce, H.; Spitters, C.; Ericson, K.; Wilkerson, S.; Tural, A.; Diaz, G.; Cohn, A.; Fox, L.; Patel, A.; Gerber, S. I.; Kim, L.; Tong, S.; Lu, X.; Lindstrom, S.; Pallansch, M. A.; Weldon, W. C.; Biggs, H. M.; Uyeki, T. M.; Pillai, S. K.; Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med.2020, 382 (10), 929–936.
81.    First 12 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States | medRxiv 10.1101/2020.03.09.20032896v1 (accessed Jun 2, 2020).
82.    Habibzadeh, P.; Stoneman, E. K. The Novel Coronavirus: A Bird’s Eye View. Int J Occup Environ Med2020, 11 (2), 65–71.
83.    Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Qin, Q. Unique Epidemiological and Clinical Features of the Emerging 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) Implicate Special Control Measures. J. Med. Virol.2020.
84.    Toots, M.; Yoon, J.-J.; Cox, R. M.; Hart, M.; Sticher, Z. M.; Makhsous, N.; Plesker, R.; Barrena, A. H.; Reddy, P. G.; Mitchell, D. G.; Shean, R. C.; Bluemling, G. R.; Kolykhalov, A. A.; Greninger, A. L.; Natchus, M. G.; Painter, G. R.; Plemper, R. K. Characterization of Orally Efficacious Influenza Drug with High Resistance Barrier in Ferrets and Human Airway Epithelia. Science Translational Medicine2019, 11 (515). 10.1126/scitranslmed.aax5866.
85.    Mehta, P.; McAuley, D. F.; Brown, M.; Sanchez, E.; Tattersall, R. S.; Manson, J. J. COVID-19: Consider Cytokine Storm Syndromes and Immunosuppression. The Lancet2020, 395 (10229), 1033–1034.
86.    Xu, X.; Han, M.; Li, T.; Sun, W.; Wang, D.; Fu, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zheng, X.; Yang, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, X.; Pan, A.; Wei, H. Effective Treatment of Severe COVID-19 Patients with Tocilizumab. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2020, 117 (20), 10970–10975.
87.    Cheng, Y.; Wong, R.; Soo, Y. O. Y.; Wong, W. S.; Lee, C. K.; Ng, M. H. L.; Chan, P.; Wong, K. C.; Leung, C. B.; Cheng, G. Use of Convalescent Plasma Therapy in SARS Patients in Hong Kong. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.2005, 24 (1), 44–46.
88.    Jiang, L.; Wang, N.; Zuo, T.; Shi, X.; Poon, K.-M. V.; Wu, Y.; Gao, F.; Li, D.; Wang, R.; Guo, J.; Fu, L.; Yuen, K.-Y.; Zheng, B.-J.; Wang, X.; Zhang, L. Potent Neutralization of MERS-CoV by Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies to the Viral Spike Glycoprotein. Sci Transl Med2014, 6 (234), 234ra59. https://
89.    Ying, T.; Du, L.; Ju, T. W.; Prabakaran, P.; Lau, C. C. Y.; Lu, L.; Liu, Q.; Wang, L.; Feng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zheng, B.-J.; Yuen, K.-Y.; Jiang, S.; Dimitrov, D. S. Exceptionally Potent Neutralization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus by Human Monoclonal Antibodies. J. Virol.2014, 88 (14), 7796–7805.
90.    Tang, X.-C.; Agnihothram, S. S.; Jiao, Y.; Stanhope, J.; Graham, R. L.; Peterson, E. C.; Avnir, Y.; Tallarico, A. S. C.; Sheehan, J.; Zhu, Q.; Baric, R. S.; Marasco, W. A. Identification of Human Neutralizing Antibodies against MERS-CoV and Their Role in Virus Adaptive Evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2014, 111 (19), E2018-2026.
91.    Channappanavar, R.; Lu, L.; Xia, S.; Du, L.; Meyerholz, D. K.; Perlman, S.; Jiang, S. Protective Effect of Intranasal Regimens Containing Peptidic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Fusion Inhibitor Against MERS-CoV Infection. J. Infect. Dis.2015, 212 (12), 1894–1903. infdis/jiv325.
92.    Soo, Y. O. Y.; Cheng, Y.; Wong, R.; Hui, D. S.; Lee, C. K.; Tsang, K. K. S.; Ng, M. H. L.; Chan, P.; Cheng, G.; Sung, J. J. Y. Retrospective Comparison of Convalescent Plasma with Continuing High-Dose Methylprednisolone Treatment in SARS Patients. Clin. Microbiol. Infect.2004, 10 (7), 676–678. https://
93.    Pang, H.; Liu, Y.; Han, X.; Xu, Y.; Jiang, F.; Wu, D.; Kong, X.; Bartlam, M.; Rao, Z. Protective Humoral Responses to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus: Implications for the Design of an Effective Protein-Based Vaccine. J. Gen. Virol.2004, 85 (Pt 10), 3109–3113. vir.0.80111-0.
94.    Barton, C.; Kouokam, J. C.; Lasnik, A. B.; Foreman, O.; Cambon, A.; Brock, G.; Montefiori, D. C.; Vojdani, F.; McCormick, A. A.; O’Keefe, B. R.; Palmer, K. E. Activity of and Effect of Subcutaneous Treatment with the Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin in Two Laboratory Rodent Models. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.2014, 58 (1), 120–127. AAC.01407-13.
95.    Cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome https:// (accessed Jun 2, 2020).
96.    Zumla, A.; Hui, D. S.; Azhar, E. I.; Memish, Z. A.; Maeurer, M. Reducing Mortality from 2019-NCoV: Host-Directed Therapies Should Be an Option. Lancet2020, 395 (10224), e35–e36.
97.    Prabakaran, P.; Gan, J.; Feng, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Choudhry, V.; Xiao, X.; Ji, X.; Dimitrov, D. S. Structure of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor-Binding Domain Complexed with Neutralizing Antibody. J. Biol. Chem.2006, 281 (23), 15829–15836.
98.    Adedeji, A. O.; Severson, W.; Jonsson, C.; Singh, K.; Weiss, S. R.; Sarafianos, S. G. Novel Inhibitors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Entry That Act by Three Distinct Mechanisms. J. Virol.2013, 87 (14), 8017–8028. 10.1128/JVI.00998-13.
99.    Reeves, J. D.; Piefer, A. J. Emerging Drug Targets for Antiretroviral Therapy. Drugs2005, 65 (13), 1747–1766. https://
100.    Anand, K.; Ziebuhr, J.; Wadhwani, P.; Mesters, J. R.; Hilgenfeld, R. Coronavirus Main Proteinase (3CLpro) Structure: Basis for Design of Anti-SARS Drugs. Science2003, 300 (5626), 1763–1767.
101.    Sangwan, R. S.; Chaurasiya, N. D.; Misra, L. N.; Lal, P.; Uniyal, G. C.; Sharma, R.; Sangwan, N. S.; Suri, K. A.; Qazi, G. N.; Tuli, R. Phytochemical Variability in Commer- Cial Herbal Products and Preparations of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha). Current Science. 2004, 86 (3), 5.
102.    Fogolari, F.; Brigo, A.; Molinari, H. The Poisson-Boltzmann Equation for Biomolecular Electrostatics: A Tool for Structural Biology. J. Mol. Recognit.2002, 15 (6), 377–392. 10.1002/jmr.577.
103.    CDC. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S. (accessed Jun 6, 2020).
104.    Li, J.; Li, J. (Justin); Xie, X.; Cai, X.; Huang, J.; Tian, X.; Zhu, H. Game Consumption and the 2019 Novel Coronavirus. The Lancet Infectious Diseases2020, 20 (3), 275–276. S1473-3099(20)30063-3.
105.    Jin, Y.-H.; Cai, L.; Cheng, Z.-S.; Cheng, H.; Deng, T.; Fan, Y.-P.; Fang, C.; Huang, D.; Huang, L.-Q.; Huang, Q.; Han, Y.; Hu, B.; Hu, F.; Li, B.-H.; Li, Y.-R.; Liang, K.; Lin, L.-K.; Luo, L.-S.; Ma, J.; Ma, L.-L.; Peng, Z.-Y.; Pan, Y.-B.; Pan, Z.-Y.; Ren, X.-Q.; Sun, H.-M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Weng, H.; Wei, C.-J.; Wu, D.-F.; Xia, J.; Xiong, Y.; Xu, H.-B.; Yao, X.-M.; Yuan, Y.-F.; Ye, T.-S.; Zhang, X.-C.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhang, Y.-G.; Zhang, H.-M.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, M.-J.; Zi, H.; Zeng, X.-T.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Wang, X.-H.; , for the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University Novel Coronavirus Management and Research Team, Evidence-Based Medicine Chapter of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care (CPAM). A Rapid Advice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-NCoV) Infected Pneumonia (Standard Version). Mil Med Res2020, 7 (1), 4. s40779-020-0233-6.
106.    Lei, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Qi, X. CT Imaging of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-NCoV) Pneumonia. Radiology2020, 295 (1), 18–18.
107.    Assiri, A.; Al-Tawfiq, J. A.; Al-Rabeeah, A. A.; Al-Rabiah, F. A.; Al-Hajjar, S.; Al-Barrak, A.; Flemban, H.; Al-Nassir, W. N.; Balkhy, H. H.; Al-Hakeem, R. F.; Makhdoom, H. Q.; Zumla, A. I.; Memish, Z. A. Epidemiological, Demographic, and Clinical Characteristics of 47 Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Disease from Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Study. Lancet Infect Dis2013, 13 (9), 752–761. S1473-3099(13)70204-4.
108.    Wu, H.; Huang, J.; Zhang, C. J. P.; He, Z.; Ming, W.-K. Facemask Shortage and the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak: Reflections on Public Health Measures. EClinicalMedicine2020, 21. j.eclinm.2020.100329.
109.    El Bcheraoui, C.; Mimche, H.; Miangotar, Y.; Krish, V. S.; Ziegeweid, F.; Krohn, K. J.; Ekat, M. H.; Nansseu, J. R.; Dimbuene, Z. T.; Olsen, H. E.; Tine, R. C. K.; Odell, C. M.; Troeger, C. E.; Kassebaum, N. J.; Farag, T.; Hay, S. I.; Mokdad, A. H. Burden of Disease in Francophone Africa, 1990-2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Glob Health2020, 8 (3), e341–e351. 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30024-3.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Vishal Kumar, Attish Bhardwaj, Navdeep Singh, Kamya Goyal, Shammy Jindal

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2021.00038         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Yogita V. Dalvi

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00025.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mr. Ritik. S. Jain, Miss. Bhavana. B. Awad, Mr. Sahil. B. Patil, Mr. Paresh. A. Patil, Mr. Dipesh. R. Karnavat

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00022.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): C. Muralikrishna Goud

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00048.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ajay I. Patel, Pooja R. Maru, Ashok B. Patel, Amitkumar J. Vyas, Nilesh K. Patel

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2021.00048         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Akshay Gade, Rutuja Sawant, Shreya Parkar, Prajakta Kegade

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00052.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Poonam Patil, Rutuja Shah, Anwar Shaikh, Smita Nayak, Vaidhun Bhaskar

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2022.00040         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): Urvashi Rai, Kavita Sharma, Richa Kamani, Urmila Pande, Alka Singh, Arjun Singh

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2024.00005         Access: Closed Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPSci) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences....... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659 

Recent Articles