Oral thrush is candidal infection of mouth called candidiasis. It is an ubiquitous infectious disease and its incidence has been increasing over the last few years, not only in children but also in immunocompromised patients, thus becoming a public health problem. Lysozyme, a natural component of saliva has been reported for its anticandidal activity thus hyposalivation causes candidasis. The aim of this study is to formulate and investigate the synergistic anticandidal effect of mouth paint containing lysozyme and fruit extract of Coccinia indica against Candida albicans. In combination with C. indica fruit extract, the concentration of lysozyme for inhibiting the growth of the tested Candida species could be reduced by 50%. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lysozyme and fruit extract of C. indica against Candida species is 160 µg/ml of each. These results support the potential use of lysozyme and C. indica fruit extract as an anticandidal agent in treatment of oral thrush.
Cite this article:
Patil Sunita, Puri Sumati. Control of Oral Thrush causing Candida albicans by Novel Synergistic Formulation. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023; 13(1):1-5. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2023.00001
Patil Sunita, Puri Sumati. Control of Oral Thrush causing Candida albicans by Novel Synergistic Formulation. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023; 13(1):1-5. doi: 10.52711/2231-5659.2023.00001 Available on: https://ajpsonline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-13-1-1
1. Sowmya Y. A Review on the human oral microflora. Res Rev J Den Sci 2016; 4 (3):1–5.
2. Singh S, Shivhare UD, Sakarkar SN. Oral infections, a mirror of our overall health condition : An overview. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2013;4(9):2976–2982.
3. Sachdeva SK, Dutta S, Sabir H, Sachdeva A. Oral Thrush in an infant: A case report with treatment modalities. Ped Den Care. 2016;1(1):1–2.
4. Rina G. Maskare, Ayush P. Agrawal, Mayuri S. Pal, Jidnyasa R. Yerne, Megham Chaudhri, Anup R. Bawankar, Gaytri B. Sonkusre. A Review on New Herbal Remedies for treatment of Mouth Ulcer. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2022; 12(2):162-6.
5. Priyanka Sharma. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on prevention of common neonatal infections among primigravida mothers, in Doon Female Hospital, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management. 2022; 10(1):71-6.
6. Rautemaa R, Ramage G. Oral candidosis clinical challenges of a biofilm disease. Critl Rev Micro. 2011;37(4):328-36.
7. Surbhi Choursiya, Arpana Indurkhya. Development and Evaluation of Hard Candy Lozenges Containing Roxithromycin for Treatment of Oral Infection. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2020; 10(3):150-154.
8. Sumantri, S. et al., Candida Esophagitis : A Retrospective Study of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Grading and the Characteristic Profile. 2011;12, 95–99.
9. Mayer J, M Doubek, J Doubek, and D Horky. n.d. reduced nephrotoxicity of conventional amphotericin B therapy after minimal nephroprotective measures : animal experiments and clinical study. 2002;l86: 379–88.
10. Lekshmi L, Anithalekshmi MR, Abraham L, Aniyan N, Varghese R, Abraham S. Oral candidasis – review. Int Pharm Nano Sci. 2015;4(6):409–417.
11. Lakshman P, Samaranayake, Leung KW, Jin L. Oral mucosal fungal infections. Periodontology. 2009;49:39–59.
12. Meenambiga S S, Rajagopal K, Maithili Shevalkar. Endophytic Fungi, A Novel source in the treatment of Oral infections. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(6): 2936-2942.
13. Yadav T, Rohane S. Acute Toxicity study of Synthesized drug and Herbal Product. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021; 11(4):251-6.
14. Thombre N, Thete M, Shimpi P. Review on Role of Herbs in Management of Oral diseases. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(4):321-326.
15. Rudney JD, Smith QT. Relationships between levels of lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, and secretory immunoglobulin A in stimulated parotid saliva. Infec Imm. 1985;49(3):469–475.
16. Samaranayake YH, Samaranayake LP, Pow EHN, Beena VT, Yeung KWS. Antifungal effects of lysozyme and lactoferrin against genetically similar, sequential Candida albicans isolates from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected Southern Chinese Cohort. J Clin Micr. 2001;39(9):3296–3302.
17. Wu T, Samaranayake LP, Leung WK, Sullivan PA. Inhibition of growth and secreted aspartyl proteinase production in Candida albicans by lysozyme. Med Microbiol. 2017;48(1999):721–730.
18. Yogesh Shivhare. A Marvel Plant: Coccinia indica. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2013;3(1):42-44.
19. Kumar M, Alok S, Jain SK, Verma A, Mahor A, Sabharwal. Morphology , pharmacological activity, pharmaceutical preparation, doses and side effect of Coccinia indica ( Wight & Arn .): An overview. J Coastal Life Med. 2013;1(4):330–336.
20. Raje VN, Yadav AV, Shelar PA. Coccinia indica- A Phytopharmacological Review.. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2013; 5(1): 9-14.
21. Gupta AK. Introduction to pharmaceutics II. CBS publications, New delhi, India. 2007:101-125.
22. Archana R. Pawar, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, R. S. Jadhav. Recent Advances in Extraction Techniques of Herbals – A Review. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(4):287-292.
23. Bambal VC, Wyawahare NS, Turaskar AO, Deshmukh TA. Evaluation of wound healing activity of herbal gel containing the fruit exract of Coccinia indica weight and Arn.(cucurbitaceae). Int J Pharm Pham Sci. 2011;3suppl 4: 319-322.
24. Aslani A, Ghannadi A, Najafi H. Design , formulation and evaluation of a mucoadhesive gel from Quercus brantii L. and coriandrum sativum L. as periodontal drug delivery. Adv biomed Res. 2013;2(2).
25. Rukayadi Y, Lee K, Lee M, Yong D, Hwang J. Synergistic anticandidal activity of xanthorrhizol in combination. FEMS Yest Res. 2009;9:1302–1311.
26. Samaranayake YH, Cheung BPK, Parahitiyawa N, Seneviratne CJ, Yau JYY, Yeung KWS, Samaranayake LP. Synergistic activity of lysozyme and antifungal agents against Candida albicans biofilms on denture acrylic surfaces. Arc Oral Biol. 2009;54:115–126.
27. Ahmadi-Motamayel F, Goodarzi MT, Hendi SS, Abdolsamadi H, Rafieian N. Evaluation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium and total protein levels in caries free and caries active adolescence. J Dent Oral Hyg. 2013;5(April):35–39.
28. Rehan F, Khan RS, Khurshid Z, Memon MS, Naqvi S, Zafar MS. Analysis of resting mouth salivary flow rate and salivary pH of tobacco chewers and smokers. J Pak Dent Assoc. 2016;25(4):158-163.
29. Aframian DJ, Davidowitz T, Benoliel R. The distribution of oral mucosal pH values in healthy saliva secretors. Orl Dise. 2006;12:420–423.
30. Aslani A, Zolfaghari B, Davoodvandi F. Design, formulation and evaluation of an Oral gel from Punica Granatum flower extract for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Adv Pharm Bull. 2016;6(3):391–398.
31. Khushboo K, Saloni B, Singh RK. A Briefing of a Global Crisis: Antibiotic Resistance. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(4):264-272.