Chemical Composition of Aegle marmelos: A Review

 

Yogita Chowdhary

Sanskar College of Pharmacy and Research, Ghaziabad-201001.

*Corresponding Author Email: Yogitachowdhary85@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Aegle marmelos (Bilva) is being used in Ayurveda for the treatment of several inflammatory disorders. The plant is a member of a fixed dose combination of Dashamoola in Ayurveda. However, the usage of roots/root bark or stems is associated with sustainability concerns. Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) is an important medicinal plant of India. Leaves, fruits, stem and roots of A. marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its' medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds purified from bael have been proven to be biologically active against several major diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical studies indicate the therapeutic potential of crude extracts of A. marmelos in the treatment of many microbial diseases, diabetes and gastric ulcer. This review covers the biological activities of some isolated chemical constituents of A. marmelos and preclinical studies on some crude extracts and pure compounds to explore novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic application. Aegle marmelos (L.) is a seasonal fruit that contains significant amounts of bioactives like, phenolic acids (gallic acids, 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid), flavonoid (rutin), organic acids (oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid), vitamin C, vitamin B group (thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, cobalamins, riboflavin), tocopherols (α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol), carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene, γ-carotene, δ-carotene) and also rich in essential minerals (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, copper, manganese). Hence the use of aegle plays important role as anti-inflammatory.

 

KEYWORDS: Fumaric acid, Succinic acid, Astringent, Demulcent, Vitamin B.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

A moderate sized tree, 6.0-7.5m high. Branches armed with straight, sharp, axillary, 2.5cm long spines. Leaves trifoliate, occasionally digitate, five- foliate; leaflets ovate or ovate-laceolate, acuminate, crenate, lateral sessile, terminal long petioled1,2. Flowers greenish white, in short axillary panicles3,4.

 

Fruit globose, grey5,6,7 or yellowish, rind woody8,9. Seeds many, oblong, embedded in sacs covered with thick orange colored sweet pulp. The roots are sweet, astringent10,11,12, bitter and febrifuge; useful in diarrhoea, dysentery13,14, dyspepsia, gastralgia, palpitation, seminal, weakness, uropathy, vomiting, intermittent, fever, swellings and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are astringent, laxative and, expectorant and useful in opthalmia15,16,17 deafness, diabetes. The unripe fruits are bitter, acrid, sour, astringent, digestive18,19,20 and stomachic and are useful in diarrhoea, dysentery and stomachalgia. The ripe fruits are astringent, sweet, aromatic, cooling, febrifuge, laxative, tonic and are good for heart and brain in dyspepsia.

 


Table1: Chemical Constituents of Aegle marmelos

Bark43,44, root45,46, root-bark47, fruit48

R= H, umbelliferone

Bark21, root22

R=

Aurapten

Root23

R=

6’,7’-Epoxyauraptene

Bark, root, root-bark, heartwood

 

Marmin

Lea

 

Prealtin

Leaf

 

 

Marmenol

Leaf

 

Skimmin

Leaf, fruit, root

 

Scopoletin

Linear Coumarin

 

 

Fruit, Seed

Imperatorin

Root, root-bark

R=OH

Xanthotoxin

Fruit25, Heartwood

R=H

Xanthotoxol

Heartwood26

R=

Xanthotoxol-8-0-β-D-glucopyranoside

Fruit27

 

Marmelide

Root

 

R=H

R1=H

Psoralen

Fruit

R=CH3,R1=H Bergapten

Fruit28

R=

R1=OH

Allo-imperatorin

Fruit, bark, root

 

R=H,R1=H, Marmesin

Stem-bark29

R=

R1=H

Marmesin-1”-α-L-rhamnopyranoside

Leaf30

R=OH,R1=OH

Rutaretin

Seed

 

Luvangetin

Root, stem-bark

 

Aegelinol

Root-bark

 

Decursinol

Alkaloids

Leaf, fruit

 

R=CH3,R=OH Aegeline

Leaf, fruit

R=

Marmeline

Leaf31

R=CH3,R1=OCH2CH3

N-2-Ethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethylcinnamide

Leaf32

R=,R1=OCH3

N-2-Methoxy-2-[4-(3’,3’-dimethyloxy) phenyl] ethylcinnamide

Leaf

R=CH3, R1=OCH3

Leaf33

N-2-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethylcinnamide

Leaf

R=

R1=H

Dehydromarmeline

Leaf

R=

R1=OCOCH3

Marmeline acetate

Leaf

R=H, R1=OH

N-2-Hydroxy-2-[4-hydroxyphenyl]

Leaf

R=CH3

R1=

Aegelinoside A

Leaf34

 

Aegelinoside B

Leaf35

 

Anhydroaegeline

Leaf, root36

 

Tembanide

Leaf

 

Anydromarmeline

Root, aerial part,

root bark

 

Skimmianine

Heartwood37

 

Dictamie

Aerial part, root bark

 

Haplopine

Bark, root bark

 

Fagarine

Leaf38

R=H

Aegeline

Leaf39

 

O-Isopentyl halfordinol

Leaf7

 

Shahidine

Anthraquinones

Stem bark40

 

1,5-Dihyroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl anthraquinone

Seed

 

1-Methyl-2-(3’methyl-but-2’-enyloxy)-anthraquinone

Seed41

 

2-isoprenyl-4-methyl-1-Oxa-cyclopenta[b]anthracene-5,10,dione

 

 

Heartwood42

R1=R6=H,R2=CH3,R3=OH,R4=R5=OCH3

7,8-Dimethoxy-1-hydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone

Heartwood43

R1=CH3,R2=R4=R5=H,R3=OCH3,R6=OH

6-Hydroxy-1-methoxy-3-methyl anthraquinone

Flavanoids

Leaves44

 

Rutin

Leaves46

 

Propelargindin

Stem bark

 

6-Methyl-4-chromanone

Leaves

 

Betulinic acid

Protolimnoids

Stem bark

 

 

Stem bark

R1=  R2=H

Skimmiarepin A

Stem bark

R1=  R2=H

Skimmiarepin C

Steroids

Heartwood,root-bark,leaves,stem-bark

 

Lupeol

Fruit,seed,leaves

 

β-Sitosterol

Miscellaneous

Seed46

 

Plumbagin

Seed

 

Vanillin

Seed

 

Salicin

Whole plant

 

2-Hydroxy Cinnamic acid

Whole plant

 

Butyl-p-tolylsulphide

Stem bark47

 

5,6-Dimethoxy-1-indanone

Stem bark48

 

Butylated hydroxyanisole

Fruit

 

Marmelin

Leaves

 

Citral

Leaves

 

α-pinene

Leaves

 

D-limonene

Leaves

 

Menthol

Leaves50

 

Camphor

Volatile oil

Leaves51

 

α-Phellandrene

Leaves

 

Β-Phellandrene

Leaves

 

Eugenol

Leaves

 

1,8-Cineole

Leaves

 

β-Elemene

Leaves52

 

Linalool

Leaves

 

β-Citronellal

Leaves

 

Myrcene

Leaves

 

Anthocyanin

Leaves

 

Camphene

Leaves

 

β-Thujene

 Leaves53

 

β-Elemene

Leaves

 

α-Valerolactone

Leaves

 

α-Copaene

Leaves54

 

α-terpinene

Leaves

 

α-Terpineol

Carotenoids

Fruit

 

Vitamin A

Leaves55

 

β-Carotene

 


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Received on 28.07.2021              Modified on 07.08.2021

Accepted on 12.08.2021       ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2021; 11(4):280-290.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5659.2021.00044