Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ardisia blatteri using Different Experimental Models in Rats


M. Dhanasekaran

PG & Research Department of Botany, The American College, Madurai 625002, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: m.dhana066@gmail.com



The genus Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) represented 200 species in the warm climates of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In India, 13 species are represented, from which 7 are endemic and nine species are recorded in Tamil Nadu.  The phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract in this plant already showed the presence of various phytocompounds such as flavonids, glycosides, terpenoids and anthraquinones.  The earlier spectrum studies also given certain clue for potential compounds are present in plant ethanol extract. Uses of traditional medicinal attributed especially to Ardisia include alleviation of liver cancer, swelling, rheumatism, earache, cough, fever, diarrhea, broken bones, dysmenorrhea, respiratory tract infections, traumatic injuries, inflammation, pain, snake and insect bites, birth complications and to improve general blood circulation. The present study clearly showed that Ethanol Extract of Ardisia blatteri (EEAB) has the significant Neuro protection and memory enhancement value proved by Nootropic activity


KEYWORDS: Ardisia blatteri, Phytochemical analysis, Neuro protection, Nootropic activity.




India is having rich resources of medicinal plants and is one among the richest countries in the world as regards to genetic diversity of medicinal plants. India is also highly diversified with agroclimatic, ecologic and edaphic conditions.[1] It is estimated about 8000 species of wild plants used by the tribals and other traditional communities in India for treating various health problems. Medicinal plants are used as a source of medicine and improved human life since time immemorial. Several medicinal plants are the source of metabolic compounds which have been used for chemotherapeutic purposes.[2]




Western Ghats is the second largest endemic centre in India with 1,550 endemics out of the estimated 4,250 species especially in vascular plants.[3] The Southern Western Ghats have the boundary region of southern Karnataka, Kerala and part of Tamil Nadu is considered as the most species rich region with respect to endemism.[4]. Now only 10 percent of the world’s biodiversity has been screened for biological activity and there is a great potential for leads from natural resources. [5]


Roughly, 1500 species of medicinal plants from out of the total of 5000 species of Western Ghats are reported.[6] There are more than 200 such aromatic species in different ecosystems of Western Ghats and are predominantly spread among Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Zingiberaceae, Lauraceae, Oleaceae and Poaceae. While species diversity is assessed to some extent, infra specific diversity in these aromatic species is least known. Nevertheless, many species like Hyptissauveolens, Blumealacera, B. hieracifolia, B. membranacea, Cymbopogonflexuosus, Ocimumbasilicum, Plectranthusmollis exhibit remarkable morphological variations in the region.[7]


In India, over 2600 plant species have been considered useful in the traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Home remedies.[8] Number of herbal drugs and their compositions are recommended for combating human ailments in the ancient texts as well as in modern medicine.[9] Traditional medicines have been used by the Indian people since many centuries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over 80% of the global population relies chiefly on traditional medicine.[10] In India, the use of plants for medicinal treatment dates back to 5000 years. It was officially recognized that 2500 plant species have medicinal value while over 6000 plants are estimated to be explored in traditional, folk and herbal medicine.[11]


As part of the study exploring the therapeutic capabilities, this present investigation is made to check Nootropic activity by using different experimental models in rats



Plant source:

The endemic plant from the Western Ghats namely Ardisia blatteri was collected from Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. The voucher specimen had been deposited in the Madura College Herbarium, Madurai. The identification was done with the help of BSI, Southern Circle, Coimbatore.


Solvent extraction:

The collected plant material are washed with running tap water to remove dusts and other particles. Then the materials were shade dried and blundered as coarse powder. The powder materials (250 gm) were subjected to extraction with solvent (ethanol) in Soxhlet’s apparatus with continuous 8 hrs reflux. The crude extracts concentrated in room temperature and stored in dessicator.



All the animals are acclimatized to the laboratory conditions prior to experimentation. All the experiments are conducted between 10.00 and 17.00 hr and were in accordance with the ethical guidelines of the CPCSEA (661/02/C/CPCSEA /IAEC/302/KMCP/2015-2016). The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of K.M. College of Pharmacy, Madurai District, Tamilnadu.


1. Elevated plus maze method:

Rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each as follows:

Group-I animals served as control and received distilled water (10ml/kg).

Group-II animals received Scopolamine (0.4mg/kg) and Piractetam (200mg/kg)

Group-III and Group-IV were received Scopolamine (0.4mg/kg) and Ethanolic Extract of Ardisia blatteri at a dose of (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) respectively.


The apparatus was made of Plexiglass and consisted of two open arms (30cmx5cm) with 25cm walls. The arms extended from a central platform (5cmx5cm). The maze was elevated 38.5cm from the room floor. Each animal was placed at the centre of the maze; facing one of the enclosed and open arms was recorded for 5min test. All tests were taped by using a video camera. After each test, the maze was carefully cleaned up with a tissue paper (10% ethanol solution)[12],[13],[14]


2. Spatial learning in the water maze:

Rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each as follows:

Group-I animals served as control and received distilled water (10ml/kg).

Group-II animals received Scopolamine (0.4mg/kg) and Piractetam (200mg/kg).

Group-III and Group-IV were received Scopolamine (0.4mg/kg) and Ethanolic Extract of Ardisia blatteri at a dose of (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) respectively.

The apparatus is a circular water tank filled to a depth of 20 cm with 250C water. Four points equally distributed along the perimeter of the tank serve as starting location. The tank is divided in four equal quadrants and a small platform (19cm height) is located in the centre of one of the quadrants. The platform remains in the same position during the training days. The rat is released into the water and allowed 60-90s to find the platform. Well trained rats escape in less than 10 seconds.[15][16]



In the present study, scientific evaluation was carried out by using EEAB to prove the nootropic potential. In the conclusion, data obtained from the study showed significant neuro protection and memory enhancement by EEAB at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, which might also be useful as supportive adjuvant used in treatment of elderly memory loss.


The ability of an individual to record the information and recall it when ever needed is known as Memory. Dementia is a mental disorder characterized by loss of intellectual ability (judgment or abstract thinking) which invariably involves impairment of memory. Approximately in 12 million people the dementia was occurring in worldwide and this is likely to increase by 2040 to 25 millions. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) accounts for nearly 50% of all cases of dementia. It affects about 6% of the population aged over the 65 and increases the incidence with age.[17] Learning is defined as the acquisition of information and skills, while subsequent retention of that information is called memory.[18] AD is the progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized in the brain by the presence of senile plaques rich in insoluble aggregates of beta amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles. Loss of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis magnocellularis of cortex is one of the most prominent features of AD. [19]


At milligram (mg) dosage which might also be useful as supportive adjuvant used in treatment of elderly memory loss. Hence EEAB can be used for the management of Alzhemer’s disease and other neuro degenerative disorder. Further the isolation and the characterization of EEAB was done to know the exact mechanism of action of nootropic avtivity.


Table 1: On 8th day the effect of EEAB in Scopolamine induced Amnesia by elevated plus maze method.


Scopolamine (mg/kg)

Elevated plus maze Before scopolamine

After scopolamine





Piractetam (200mg/kg)




EEAB (200mg/kg)




EEAB (400mg/kg)




Valves are expressed in mean + SEM, (n=6), when compared with control.

**p<0.01, one way ANOVA followed by Newmann keuls multiple range tests.


Table 2: on 8th day effect of EEAB in scopolamine induced amnesia by Spatial learning in water maze method.


Scopolamine (mg/kg)

Spatial learning in water maze Before scopolamine

After scopolamine





Piractetam (200mg/kg)




EEAB (200mg/kg)




EEAB (400mg/kg)




Valves are expressed in mean + SEM, (n=6), when compared with control, *p<0.05.

**p<0.01, one way ANOVA followed by Newmann keuls multiple range tests.




Sincerely express my deep sense of gratitude and respect to my guide Dr. S. Karuppusamy to suggest this kind of valuable work and N. Chithambranathan who supported for entire Pharmacology work for this study period.



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Received on 22.10.2019            Modified on 08.11.2019

Accepted on 16.11.2019            © A&V Publications All right reserved

Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019; 9(4):267-269.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00041.9