A Review on “Red and Green Biotechnology”

 

Rupali Yevale*, Manisha Sharma, Dhanshree Kakde, Nilofar Khan, Kirteebala Pawar

K. G. Rahul Dharkar  College of Pharmacy and Research Institute, Karjat. (M. S.) India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: rupalikalp123@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Green Biotechnology is the use of genetically altered plants or animals to produce more environmentally farming solutions as an alternative to traditional agriculture, horticulture, and animal breeding processes. Green biotechnology involves the creation of more fertile and resistant seeds, plants and resources by using specialized techniques. It is  considered as the next phase of green revolution, which can be seen as a platform to eradicate world hunger by using technologies which enable the production of more fertile and resistant, towards biotic and abiotic stress, plants and ensures application of environmentally friendly fertilizers and the use of biopesticides, it is mainly focused on the development of agriculture. Red biotechnology involves a process that utilizes organisms to improve health care and help the body to fight diseases. It is a branch of modern biotechnology which is utilized in the field of medicine. Red biotechnology is used to create substances for medical use or to directly aid the body in fighting a disease.

 

KEYWORDS: Red Biotechnology, Green Biotechnology.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The concept of "biotech" or "biotechnology" is procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and "improvements" to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includes genetic engineering and tissue culture technologies. The American Chemical Society defined biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops.

 

 

 

According to European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services.1             

 

A.     GREEN BIOTECHNOLOGY:

Green biotechnology refers to biological techniques of plants with the target of improving the nutritional quality, quantity and production economics. Such as production of disease-resistant or UV-resistant plants, or plants that have superior qualities, by means of genetic modification. Other examples include production of biofuels, such as ethanol or methane, from crops such as corn, or even from marine algae grown at land-based production facilities.2

 

The first genetically modified crops were cultivated in the USA in 1996. In 2009, 14 million farmers in 25 countries used Genetically Modified (GM) crops. The annual global acreage has increased to more than 134 million hectares worldwide.3 GM seed tends to be more expensive but in return, it reduces expenses in other areas, such as the cost of pesticides, machines and labor.4

The three major contributions of green biotechnology to the mitigation of the impact of climate change are:

A. Greenhouse gas reduction

B. Crops adaptation

C. Protection and increase yield with less surface 5

 

B. RED BIOTECHNOLOGY:

Red biotechnology based on the use of organisms for the improvement of medical processes. It includes the designing of organisms to manufacture pharmaceutical products like antibiotics and vaccines, the engineering of genetic cures through genomic manipulation, and its use in forensics through DNA profiling.6 Creating biopharmaceuticals or “red" biotechnology applications is a long and expensive process that occurs in order to introduce a new drug into the market.

 

There are numerous applications of biotechnology.it has been a part of the agricultural industry for quite some time. In addition to the agricultural uses, biotechnology has also been making waves in the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the biopharmaceuticals that are produced through the use of biotechnology include antibodies, nucleic acids, proteins, DNA and RNA.

 

These are all used for in-vivo therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. They are different than other pharmaceuticals becaus they are developed using methods of biotechnology rather than direct extraction.

 

The first biopharmaceutical that was approved for use is actually insulin. Insulin was created using recombinant technology with DNA. Since the inception of insulin being released and used in the medical community, there have been continuous strides in the field of biopharmaceuticals. Most of these are derived from forms of living organisms.7

 

APPLICATIONS OF GREEN BIOTECHNOLOGY

1)     Allium cepa extract:

An economic and efficient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was performed using onion (Allium cepa) extract as reducing and capping agent. UV–vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles by observing the typical surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that AgNPs were spherical in shape with a size range of 10–23 nm. AgNPs were further demonstrated by the characteristic peaks observed in the XRD image. The possible functional groups of AgNPs were identified by FTIR analysis. AgNPs exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against all the microbial strains tested. Antioxidant activity of AgNPs revealed that they can be used as potential radical scavenger against deleterious damages caused by the free radicals. Additionally, AgNPs had antitumor activities against human breast, hepatocellular (HepG-2) and colon (HCT-116) carcinoma.8

 

2)     Jatropha curcas L:

Plants derivatives have made a large contribution to human health as they have been used as source of preliminary compound of drugs. Widespread usages of drugs have led to the development of pathogen resistance, hence, urging research of new drugs for the treatment of diseases. Active compound present in the medicinal plants provide the bountiful resource of active compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries, and more recently in agriculture for pest control. Antimicrobial agents are substances that kill microorganisms or inhibit growth of the microorganisms. They may damage pathogens by hampering cell wall synthesis, inhibiting microbial protein and nucleic acid synthesis, disrupting microbial membrane structure and function, or blocking metabolic pathways through inhibition of key enzymes.

 

Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) plant originated from Mexico and was spread to Asia and Africa by Portuguese traders as a hedge plant and it belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. In many sub-tropical and semi-arid regions, traditionally, J. curcasis used for its medicinal properties and its seeds contain semi-dry oil which has been found to be useful for medicinal purposes. The seeds and leaves extracts of J. curcas, have shown molluscidal and insecticidal properties. The extracts of many Jatropha species  including J. curcas have shown to display potent cytotoxic, anti-tumour and antimicrobialactivities in different assays. The latex of J. curcas have shown to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).9

 

3)     Tannase-mediated biotransformation of green tea:

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. The cancer chemopreventive qualities of green tea have been well documented. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is often described as the most potently chemopreventive green tea catechin.Thus the aim of this work was to test the chemopreventive potential of green tea extract and EGCG after tannase-mediated hydrolysis. Biotransformation of EGCG decreased its toxicity without affecting its antiproliferative effects. Furthermore, human cells gene expression profiling showed that the biotransformed compounds modulated the expression of several genes related to carcinogenesis.10

 

4)     Green Coal:

Pollution is a major concern with fossil fuels. The process flow diagram for densification of roasted leaves starts with the choice of leaves depending on their proximate analysis and their calorific value, after being collected, sun dried and submitted to roasting process. Because of poor energy characteristics, the roasting end product is to be crushed and densified with specific additives chosen for binding the roasted biomass and increases its calorific value. Finally, after processing, the roasted leaves are converted into briquettes by densification process. This fuel is energy efficient and techno economically feasible compared to other primary fuels. Proceeding directly with biomass materials. However, inherent problems with raw biomass materials compared to fossil fuel resources (low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature, and low calorific value [CV]) render raw biomass difficult to use on a large scale. Due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, very high volumes of biomass are needed, which compounds problems associated with storage, transportation, and feed handling at cogeneration, thermo-chemical, and biochemical conversion plants. High moisture in raw biomass is one of the primary challenges, as it reduces the efficiency of the process and increases fuel production costs. Conservation of fossil fuel resources and reduced CO2 emissions are real and tangible environmental benefits. The technical benefits are less certain and the separate gasification of biomass or waste materials may prove to be more practical. After choosing appropriate leaves as concerns their content in the needed elements, best transformation type has been determined, and reactor structure where such transformation takes place has been designed. The “short cycle” principle underlying resulting dual unit comprising the transformation reactor and associated solar energy source is extendable to other types of leaves as well, and represents an interesting potential possibility for reducing overall Earth pollution.11

 

5)     Betelvine (Piper betle L.):

Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is cultivated for its deep green heart shaped leaf for (15–20) million Indian and 2 billion foreign consumers annually. The leaves are not only used directly for chewing purposes but also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Besides, the leaves also contain eugenol rich essential oil (1%–3%) which is the source for medicine, stimulant, antiseptic, tonic and other ayurvedic formulations. The essential oil also contains chavibetol, caryophyllene and methyl eugenol which are the potent source for preparation in ayurvedic medicine and herbal products.

 

Lack of awareness among people, use of same planting material for many generations, existing of many synonyms for some single landraces, no proper characterization of available landraces are some of the significant constraints for its commercialization. It also attempts to provide a comprehensive account on biotechnological interventions made in betel vine aimed at complementing conventional programmed for improvement of this nutraceutical important cash crop.12

 

6)     Pepper fruits:

Pepper fruit is one of the highest vitamin C sources of plant origin for our diet. In plants, ascorbic acid is mainly synthesized through the L-galactose pathway, being the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH) the last step. Using pepper fruits, the full GalLDH gene was cloned and the protein molecular characterization accomplished. GalLDH protein sequence (586 residues) showed a 37 amino acids signal peptide at the N-terminus, characteristic of mitochondria. The hydrophobic analysis of the mature protein displayed one trans membrane helix comprising 20 amino acids at the N-terminus. By using a polyclonal antibody raised against a GalLDH internal sequence and immunoblotting analysis, a 56 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with pepper fruit samples. Using leaves, flowers, stems and fruits, the expression of GalLDH by qRT-PCR and the enzyme activity were analyzed, and results indicate that GalLDH is a key player in the physiology of pepper plants, being possibly involved in the processes which undertake the transport of ascorbate among different organs.

 

Combined results of in vivo NO treatment and in vitro assays showed that NO provoked the regulation of GalLDH at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but not post-translational modifications through nitration or S-nitrosylation events promoted by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) took place. It is used for biotechnological purposes to increase the vitamin C levels in pepper fruits .13

 

7)     Mangrove endophyte:

Mangroves are located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the three plant species: Rhizophormangle, Lagunculariaracemosa and Avicennianitida.

 

A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp.The biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth .14

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8)     Arabidopsis:

This shade avoidance response (SAR) typically includes increased stem elongation at the expense of plant fitness and yield, making it an undesirable trait in an agricultural context. Most of the investigations of the molecular mechanism of SAR have been carried out in Arabidopsis thaliana. Current data on SAR in crop plants, especially from members of the Solanaceae and Poaceae families, are integrated with data from Arabidopsis, in order to identify the most promising targets for biotechnological approaches. Phytochromes, which detect the change in light caused by neighboring plants, and early signaling components can be targeted to increase plant productivity. However, they control various photomorphogenic processes not necessarily related to shade avoidance.

 

Transcription factors involved in SAR signaling could be better targets to specifically enhance or suppress SAR. Knowledge integration from Arabidopsis and crop plants also indicates factors that could facilitate the control of specific aspects of SAR. Yetto-be-elucidated factors that control SAR-dependent changes in biotic resistance and cell wall composition are pointed out.15

 

9)   Thalassiosira pseudonana:

In all organisms, the flux of carbon through the fundamental pathways of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the pyruvate hub is a core process related to growth and productivity.For the effect of specifically reducing the ability of Thalassiosira pseudonana cells to accumulate chrysolaminarin by knocking down transcript levels of the chrysolaminarin synthase gene. Transcript-level changes in genes encoding steps in chrysolaminarin metabolism, and cytoplasmic and chloroplast glycolysis / gluconeogenesis, were monitored during silicon limitation, highlighting the carbon flux processes involved16.

 

10)Tea varieties of Bangladesh:

Depending on the manufacturing process, teas are classified into several groups such as green tea (non-fermented), oolong tea (semi-fermented) and black tea (fully fermented). Among the various grades of black tea flowery broken orange pekoe (FBOP), broken orange pekoe (BOP) and red dust are widely known in South Asia. Black tea is consumed mostly in North America, Europe and South Asia, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in East Asian countries Numerous studies have been reported that drinking tea imparts various physiological and pharmacological benefits which include, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anticholesterolemic, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial activities. The active components playing key roles in most of the biological activities of tea are known to be catechins (alsoknown as polyphenols the presence of different forms of catechins and their derivatives in both green and black teas made them capable of working as potential antioxidants. Tea polyphenols also exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity several studies have shown that both green and black tea have antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. 17

 

APPLICATIONS OF RED BIOTECHNOLOGY:

1)   Arsenic tolerance of cyanobacterial strains:

The study shows that response of indigenous cyanobacteria to As (III) and As (V), including the species Tolypothrix tenuis, Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc minutum, previously used with biotechnological purposes.18

 

2)   Nitrogen fixation by eukaryotic bacteria:

The availability of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors to crop growth. In the developed world, farmers use unsustainable levels of inorganic fertilisers to promote crop production.

 

An alternative approach to engineer nitrogen fixation in cereals, namely the introduction of nitrogenase into plant cells, also necessitates the engineering Nodulation and bacterial infection in legumes.

 

(a) Nodules on roots of Medicago truncatula. Bacteria reside inside the cells of the nodule and the pink colouration of the nodules is the result of leghaemoglobin, a protein that regulates oxygen levels to facilitate nitrogenase activity.

 

(b) An infection thread in a root hair of Medicago truncatula. Bacteria inside the infection thread are stained blue. The infection thread provides a conduit for internal colonisation of the root by the rhizobial bacteria.

 

(c) An alternative infection strategy occurs in Sesbania rostrata, in which bacteria colonise cracks in the root epidermis and initiate the formation of infection pockets, that result from programmed cell death around the site of bacterial infection.

 

Nitrogenase is a complex enzyme consisting of two proteins: the reductase component, known as the Fe protein and the catalytic component termed the Mo Fe protein. Both of these components are irreversibly damaged by oxygen and the catalytic process requires 16 moles of ATP for every mol of dinitrogen gas that is converted to 2 moles of ammonia.

 

At first sight, the stringent physiological requirements for biological nitrogen fixation, particularly protecting nitrogenase from oxygen, pose significant obstacles when considering the engineering of nif genes into plants. These catalyse proto chlorophyllide reduction and perform the last step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the dark. The dark-dependent proto chlorophyllide reductase (DPOR) consists of two oxygen-sensitive component proteins that are highly similar in structure to the Fe and Mo Fe components of nitrogenase. As in the case of nitrogenase, electron transfer between the protein components is driven by ATP hydrolysis to provide electrons for substrate reduction. Although the substrate for DPOR, proto chlorophyllide, is much larger than diatomic nitrogen, the spatial arrangement of metal centres is very similar in both enzymes, demonstrating a similar routing of electrons from the reductase component to the catalytic centre in each case.19

 

3)   Role of microorganism in alcohol production:

The need for sustainable fuels from renewable biomass is driven by our dependence on depleting supplies of fossil fuels. This is compounded by concern over current and future energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emission to alleviate climate change. Bio fuels offer an attractive and renewable alternative to petroleum derived fuels, generated by fermentation of microorganisms on sustainable plant or waste biomass. The market leader bio fuel available is bio ethanol, generated by yeast fermentation of sugar cane or cornstarch. It is typically blended with petrol (10–15%), although this is driven more by high levels of natural production in yeast, rather than its ability as an automotive fuel. Classic first generation bio fuels generated by fermentation of crop plants such as corn or sugar cane have a negative impact on food security, particularly when the fermentable biomass is derived from the edible parts of food plants.

 

·      Saccharomyces cerevisiae:

Recent study described the engineering of a cellulose adherent S. cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. It displayed cell to-cellulose adhesion and a ‘tearing’ cellulose degradation pattern, resulting in higher hydrolysis efficiency and direct ethanol production from rice straw. As crystalline cellulose requires a pretreatment of high dosages of cellulases, recombinant cellulolytic yeast strains have been developed for more efficient degradation

 

·      Clostridium sp:

Solventogenic clostridia are natural targets for the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass as they rapidly deconstruct cellulose into ethanol and other byproducts. One approach to improving n-butanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass is to introduce the clostridia acetoacetyl-CoA-derived pathway into a different species capable of growth on crystalline cellulose, an often-inaccessible carbon source.

 

·      Escherichia coliL

It was recently discovered that E. coli could naturally utilise cellobionic acid, a product of cellulose degradation by lytic polysaccharide mono oxygenase, as a sole carbon source. An approach to increase yields of an E.coli isobutanol-producing strain was to perform metabolic modelling of the redox cofactor metabolism to identify key targets for redox status improvement. 20

 

4)   Enzyme horseradish peroxidases in E.Coli:

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in various biotechnological and medical applications. Since its isolation from plant provides several disadvantages, the bacterium Escherichia coli was tested as recombinant expression host in former studies. However, neither production from refolded inclusion bodies nor active enzyme expression in the periplasm exceeded final titres of 10 mg per litre cultivation broth. In this study, we revisited the recombinant production of HRP in E. coli and investigated and compared both strategies-

(a) The production of HRP as inclusion bodies (IBs) and subsequent refolding

(b) the production of active HRP in the periplasm.

In fact, we were able to produce HRP in E. coli either way. In terms of biochemical properties, soluble HRP showed a highly reduced catalytic activity and stability which probably results from the fusion partner DsbA used in this study. Horseradish peroxidase is a glycosylated, heme-containing plant enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of different substrates (e. g. aromatic phenols, amines, indoles) using H2O2. At least 19 different HRP isoenzymes occur in the horseradish root of which isoenzyme HRP C1A is the most abundant one. The 34 kDa monomeric oxidoreductase comprises308 amino acids and contains a heme-group and two Ca2+ ions as prosthetic groups as well as 4 disulfide bridges .21

 

5)   Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis:

The production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste done by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was analyzed by Gas Chromatography–Mass spectrometry,Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis . 22

 

6)   Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials of novel endophytic fungus Achaetomium sp from Euphorbia hirta:

Natural products from plants had always been of great resourcesfor therapeutics. Endophytic fungus has been described as store house of various novel pharmaceutical compounds which have various applications. Host plants and their endophytes live in a mutualistic or in neutral relationships. Euphorbia hirta L. (E. hirta), Euphorbiaceae family, is plant distributed throughout India and also found as a pan tropical weed. The plant has been reported to be used as diuretic, and has an anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and antidiarrheals actions. It is used in treating respiratory tract inflammations and asthma in Africa. In Malagasy it is used in treating cough pulmonary disorders, and chronic bronchitis, and in treating diarrhoea and particularly amoebic dysentery. While there is more information available about the medicinal uses of E. hirta, not many reports are available on medicinal property of endophytes associated with it. Hence, this study on endophytic fungus Achaetomium sp., isolated from E. hirta was conducted in isolation, identification and evaluation of quantitative analysis of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial and hepatoprotective potentials.23

 

CONCLUSION:

Green biotechnology is scientific techniques, involving genetic engineering, that are used to modify and improve plants, animals and micro-organisms for human benefit. Green Biotechnology provide rich opportunities to increase agricultural productivity and also accelerates plant and animal breeding efforts.

 

Red biotechnology, which deals with human and animal medicine, biopharmaceutical drug development, drug delivery cell and gene therapies, tissue engineering / regenerative medicine, pharmacogenomics.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

We authors would like to thank our principal Dr. Mohan Kale, Head of department of pharmacology. Our college member like librarian, computer experts, and all other persons who help us in direct or indirect way to whom we fail to notice. Our sincere thanks to almighty God for their continuous monitoring of our work till its completion.

 

REFERENCES:

1.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology#Definitions.

2.       "The Convention on Biological Diversity (Article 2. Use of Terms)." United Nations. 1992. Retrieved on February 6, 2008.

3.       Worldwide cultivation areas of genetically modified plants: ISAAA, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2009.

4.       JRC Scientific and Technical Reports (2008): Adoption and performance of the first GM crop introduced in EU agriculture: Bt maize in Spain.

5.       Stern Review on the economics of climate change, HM Treasury, 2006 Green Biotechnology and Climate Change – 27.01.2009

6.       www.biologyonline.org/kb/biology_articles/biotechnology/red_biotechnology.html.

7.       http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/2196.aspx.

8.       Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, A in Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Received 23 August 2016; revised 10 November 2016; accepted 19 December 2016 Available online 6 January 2017.

9.       Sillma Rampadarath1 , Daneshwar Puchooa1*, Rajesh Jeewon2 1 Department of Agriculture and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius ´ 2 Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, R´eduit, Mauritius.

10.     J.A. Macedo, L.R. Ferreira a, L.E. Camara b, J.C. Santos , A. Gambero, G.A. Macedo a, M.L. Ribeiro a Food Science Department, Faculty of Food Engineering, Campinas State University, P.O. Box 6121, 13083-862 SP, Brazil b Unidade Integrad a de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia (UNIFAG), São Francisco University, Av. São Francisco de Assis 218, Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil.

11.     K. Malak, C. de la Seiglière, C. Fernández, M. Swaminathan, A. Sebastián, Undergraduate Students, ECE Paris School of Engineering, Paris, 75014, France.

12.     Suryasnata Das, Reena Parida, I. Sriram Sandeep, Sanghamitra Nayak, Sujata Mohanty Centre of Biotechnology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751003, Odisha, India.

13.     Marta Rodríguez-Ruiza,Rosa M. Mateos, Verónica Codesidoc, Francisco J. Corpas ,José M. Palma a Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Dept. Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants ,Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, C/ Profesor Albareda, 1, 18008 Granada, Spain b University Hospital Puerta del Mar, Avenida Ana de Viya, 21, Cádiz 11009, Spainc Phytoplant Research S.L, Rabanales 21 - The Science and Technology Park of Córdoba, C/ Astrónoma CeciliaPayne, Edificio Centauro, módulo B-1, 14014Córdoba, Spain.

14.     Department of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil b Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil c Department of Microbiology, Biomedical Science Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

15.     TANG Yun-jia1, Johannes Liesche1, 21 College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, P.R.China2 Biomass Energy Center for Arid and Semi-arid lands, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, P.R. China.

16.     Mark Hildebrand , Kalpana Manandhar-Shrestha, Raffaela Abbriano Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

17.     Yead Morshed Nibir, Ahmed Faisal Sumit, Anwarul Azim Akhand, Nazmul Ahsan ,Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain*Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

18.     Susana G. Ferraria, Patricia G. Silvaa, Diana M. Gonzálezb, Julio A.J Silvaa,*a Área Microbiología , Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis, Argentinab Toxicología y Química Legal, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis, Argentina c Toxicología y Química Legal, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina Received 16 October 2012; accepted 6 August 2013.

19.     Biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem Giles ED Oldroyd and Ray Dixon.

20.     Retooling microorganisms for the fermentative production of alcohols Helen S Toogood and Nigel S Scrutton.

21.     Thomas Gundinger, Oliver Spadiut TU Wien, Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering, Research Area Biochemical Engineering, Gumpendo rfer Strasse 1a, 1060 Vienna, Austria.

22.     Onur Guneser ,Asli Demirkol ,Yonca Karagul Yuceer, Sine Ozmen Togay ,Muge Isleten Hosoglu , Murat Elibol , Usak University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Usak, Turkey b Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Canakkale, Turkey c Uluda g University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Bursa, Turkey d Ege University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Bioengineering, Izmir, Turkey.

23.     K.P.G. Uma Anitha, S. Mythili Department of Biotechnology, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 14, Tamil Nadu, India.

 

 

 

 

Received on 25.04.2018                Modified on 28.05.2018

Accepted on 06.06.2018            © A&V Publications All right reserved

Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2018; 8(2):115-120.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00020.6