A Review on Nobel Gases in Periodic Table

 

M. T. Mohite1, V. V. Dudhabale2*

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Pharmacy,

Akurdi, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Pharmacy,

Akurdi, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: vaishududhabale1995@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Along the acute right-hand column of the tabular array of parts may be a cluster called the noble gases: argonon, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Additionally, called the rare gases, they once were known as inert gases, as a result of scientists believed them incapable of reacting with different parts. Rare though' they're, these gases are a neighborhood of daily life, as proved by the argonon in balloons, the argonon in signs—and the harmful Rn in some Yankee homes. In our present study, we have a tendency to upgrading all the necessary characteristics of the Alfred Nobel gases therefore on study them all told aspects considering their importance in chemistry in our day to day life. Once the members of the cluster were discovered and known, they were thought to be extremely rare, moreover as with chemicals inert, and thus were known as the rare or inert gases1. It’s currently illustrious; however, that many of those parts are quite pr on Earth and within the remainder of the universe, therefore the designation rare is dishonest. Similarly, use of the the inert has the disadvantage that it connotes chemical passivity, suggesting that compounds of cluster eighteen can't be shaped. In chemistry and alchemy, the word noble has long signification the reluctance of metals, like gold and Pt, to endure chemical reaction; it applies within the same sense to the cluster of gases lined here. Hence, Alfred Nobel gases are studied and explained in this study briefly.

 

KEYWORDS: Alfred Nobel gases, Periodic table, Chemical bonding.

 

 


INTRODUCTION OF PERIODIC TABLE:

Dmitri Mendeleev’s periodic table:

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev was the primary somebody to form a tabular array of {the elements the we have a tendency together} like the one we use these days. You’ll see Mendeleev's original table (1869).

 

This tabular array may be a chart that teams the weather in line with their similar properties2.

 

Today's Periodic Table:

The foremost necessary distinction between Mendeleev's table and today's table is that the trendy table is organized by increasing number, not increasing mass. In 1914, Henry Moseley learned you'll through an experiment verify the atomic numbers of parts.

 

Introduction of noble gases:

·       Group eighteen - The Noble Gases Group 18 is comparatively nonreactive. This is often as a result of they need a whole valence shell.

·       The noble gases are having high ionization energies and negligible electro negativities according to the studies.

·       The noble gases, additionally called the inert gases, are situated in cluster eighteen of the tabular array.

 

Gases

 

Table 1. Group 18-The Nobel gases:

Name of the element

Symbol

Atomic No.

Electron configuration

Helium

He

2

 1s2

Neon

Ne

10

[He]2s22p6

Argon

Ar

18

[Ne]3s23p6

Krypton

Kr

36

[Ar]3d104s24p6

Xenon

Xe

54

[Kr]4d105s25p6

Radon

Rn

86

[Xe]4f145d106s26p6

Properties of noble gas:

 

Appearance:

·       As the name suggests, all the weather during this cluster are gases.

·        General Reactivity: These parts are usually thought-about nonreactive, as a result of they need closed-shell configurations.

 

Physical Properties:

All these gases are substance. They boil at low temperatures as solely dispersion forces act between the atoms.  Atomic radii increase on descendant the cluster.

 

Chemical Properties:

This cluster was originally named the "inert gases", because it was thought they shaped no compounds. However, compounds of those gases are currently well documented3. Helium, argonon and inert gas kind no illustrious compounds.

 

Oxidation States and Ionization Energies:

The first ionization energy decreases on descendant the cluster, because the valence shell becomes more aloof from the nucleus and electrons easier to get rid of.

 

Industrial Information:

·       The noble gases do have bound necessary industrial functions.

·       Helium is employed by different to dilute the atomic number 8 they breathe.

·       Argon is wide wanted to give Associate in nursing inert atmosphere for high temperature metallurgic processes.

·         Neon and element are used for filling discharge tubes.

 

History and Background:

In 1933 chemist foreseen that the heavier noble gases would be able to kind compounds with gas and atomic number 8. Specifically, he foreseen the existence of atomic number 36 hexafluoride and Xe hexafluoride (XeF6), speculated that XeF8 would possibly exist as Associate in nursing unstable compound, and advised that xenic acid would kind permeate salts. These predictions proven quite correct, though resultant predictions for XeF8 indicated that it might be not solely thermodynamically unstable, however kinematically unstable4. As of 2009, XeF8 has not been created, though the octafluoroxenon (VI) ion (XeF82−) has been determined.

 

Clathrates:

Clathrates (also referred to as cage compounds) are compounds of noble gases within which they're treed inside cavities of crystal lattices of bound organic and inorganic substances. The requirement for his or her formation is that the guest (noble gas) atoms ought to be of acceptable size to suit within the cavities of the host Bravais lattice5.

 

Hydrates:

Hydrates are shaped by compression the noble gases in water. it's believed that the water molecule, a powerful dipole, induces a weak dipole within the argonon atoms, leading to dipole-dipole interaction.

 

INFORMATION OF NOBLE GASES:

A.      HELIUM:

a)       Basic Information:

 

Name: Helium

Atomic Mass: 4.002602 amu

Symbol: He

Melting Point: -272.0 °C (1.15 K, -457.6 °F)

Group: 18

Boiling Point: -268.6 °C (4.549994 K, -451.48 °F)

Block: s

Number of Protons/Electrons: 2

Period: 1

Crystal Structure: Hexagonal (Polygon)

State at room (area) temperature: Gas

Number of Neutrons: 2

Electron configuration: 1s2

Density @ 293 K: 0.1785 g/cm3

Atomic Number: 2

Color: colorless

 

b)    Discovery:

 

Discovery date

1895 

Discovered by

Sir William Ramsay in London, and severally by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in metropolis, Sweden

Origin of the name:

The name springs from the Greek, 'Helios' which means sun, because it was within the suns corona that atomic number 2 was initial detected6.

 

c)     Atomic Structure:

 

 

Fig. 1. Atomic structure of Helium

Number of Energy Levels: 1

First Energy Level: 2

 

d)    Isotopes:

 

Isotope

Atomic mass

Natural abundance (%)

Half life

3He

3.016

0

Stable

4He

4.003

100

Stable

 

e)     Facts: Image explanation:

Image of the sun and solar flares reflecting the origin of the element’s name from the Greek “Helios”, meaning sun.

 

Appearance:

A colorless, odorless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium7. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totaling 400 million tones, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.

 

Biological role:

Helium has no known biological function, but it is non-toxic.

 

Natural abundance:

After hydrogen, helium is the second most abundant element in the universe. It has been detected spectroscopic in great abundance, especially in the hotter stars. It is present in the Earth’s atmosphere, 5 parts per million by volume, totaling 400 million tones, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.

 

f)     Uses:

·       Helium is widely used as an inert gas shield for arc welding.

·       It is useful as a protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, and in titanium and zirconium production.

·       It is also used as a cooling medium for nuclear reactors.

·       It used as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels.

·       A mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen is used as an artificial atmosphere for divers and others working under pressure.

·       Helium is extensively used for filling balloons as it is a much safer gas than hydrogen.

·       One of the recent largest uses for helium has been for pressurizing liquid fuel rockets.

B.    NEON:

a)    Basic Information:

Name: Neon

Atomic Mass: 20.1797 amu

Symbol: Ne

Melting Point: -248.6 °C (24.549994 K, -415.48 °F)

Group: 18

Boiling Point: -246.1 °C (27.049994 K, -410.98 °F)

Period: 2

Number of Neutrons: 10

Block: p

Crystal Structure: Cubic

State at room temperature: Gas

Density @ 293 K: 0.901 g/cm3

Electron configuration: [He] 2s22p6

Color: colorless

Atomic Number: 10

 

 

b)      Discovery:

 

Discovery date

1898

Discovered by

Sir William Ramsay and M.W. Travers

Origin of the name

The name comes from the Greek 'neos', meaning new.

Obtained From

liquid air

 

c)       Atomic Structure:

 

Fig. 2. Atomic structure of Neon

Number of Energy Levels: 2

 

First Energy Level: 2

Second Energy Level: 8

d)    Isotopes:

 

Isotope

Atomic mass

Natural abundance (%)

[*fr1] Half life

20Ne

19.992

90.48

Stable

21Ne

20.994

0.27

Stable

22Ne

21.991

9.25

Stable

 

e)     Facts:

Image explanation:

Image reflects the utilization of the gas in Ne lighting for advertising - during this case pictures of city bolstered by a Ne “dollar” image.

 

Appearance:

A colorless, scentless gas that includes eighteen components per million of air. Ne won't react with the other substance. It’s created from air for decorative lighting (i.e. Ne signs) as a result of it glows red once associate discharge is seen it.

 

Natural abundance:

Neon may be a rare gas gift within the atmosphere to the extent of one half in 65000 of air. It’s obtained by phase transition of air and separation from different parts by fractionation.

 

f) Uses:

·       In a vacuum discharge tube Ne glows a orange color, and is thus employed in creating the ever-present NE advertising signs, that accounts for its largest use.  

·       It is additionally accustomed build high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes and TV tubes.

·       Liquid Ne is currently commercially accessible and is a crucial economic refrigerant refrigerant.

·       It has over forty times a lot of refrigerant capability per unit volume than liquid him and over three times that of liquid atomic number 1.

 

C.   ARGON:

a)    Basic Information:

 

Name: Argon

Atomic Mass: 39.948 amu

Symbol: Ar

Melting Point: -189.3 °C (83.85 K, -308.74°F)

Group: 18

Boiling Point: -186 °C (87.15 K, -302.8 °F) 

Period: 3

Number of Neutrons: 22

Block: p

Crystal Structure: Cuboidal

State at room temperature: Gas

Density @ 293 K: 1.784 g/cm3

Electron configuration: [Ne]3s23p6

Color: colorless Gas

Atomic Number: 18

 

 

b)      Discovery:

 

Discovery date

1894

Discovered by

Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay.

Origin of the name:

The name comes from the Greek, 'Argos', that means idle.

Obtained From

Air

 

c)       Atomic Structure:

 

Fig. 3. Atomic stucture of Argon

Number of Energy Levels: 3

First Energy Level: 2

Second Energy Level: 8

Third Energy Level: 8

 

d)    Isotopes:

Isotope

Atomic mass

Natural abundance (%)

Half life

36Ar

35.968

0.336

Stable

38Ar

37.963

0.063

Stable

40Ar

39.962

99.6

Stable

 

 

 

 

e)       Facts:

Image Explanation:

The image reflects the utilization of the component within the attachment trade. AR provides associate inert atmosphere during which welded metals won't oxidize.

 

Appearance:

The third most abundant gas, creating up common fraction of the atmosphere. the number has inflated since the planet was shaped as a result of radioactive atomic number 19 turns into Ar because it decays.

 

Natural abundance:

The atmosphere contains zero.94% argon. The number has inflated since the planet was shaped as a result of radioactive atomic number 19 turns into Ar because it decays. It’s obtained commercially from air.

 

f) Uses:

Argon is employed in electric-light bulbs.

·         It is additionally employed in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of regarding three millimeter.

·         Industrially, it's used as associate element protect for arc attachment.

·         Argon is additionally used as a blanket for the assembly of atomic number 22 and different reactive parts.

 

D.      KRYPTON:

a)       Basic Information:

 

Name: Krypton

Atomic Mass: 83.8 amu

Symbol: Kr

Melting Point: -157.2 °C (115.95 K, -250.95999 °F)

Group: 18

Boiling Point: -153.4 °C (119.75001 K, -244.12 °F)

Period: 4

Number of Neutrons: 48 

Block: p

Crystal Structure: Cubic

State at room temperature: Gas

Density @ 293 K: 3.74 g/cm3

Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d104s24p6

Color: colorless gas

Atomic Number: 36

 

 

b)      Discovery:

Discovery date

1898

Discovered by

Sir William Ramsay and M.W. Traver

Origin of the name

The name is derived from the Greek 'Kryptos', meaning hidden.

Obtained From

production of liquid air

 

c)       Atomic Structure:

 

Fig. 4. Atomic structure of Krypton

 

Number of Energy Levels: 4

 

First Energy Level: 2

Second Energy Level: 8

Third Energy Level: 18

Fourth Energy Level: 8

 

d)    Isotopes:

 

Isotope

Atomic mass

Natural abundance (%)

Half-life Half life

78Kr

77.92

0.355

Stable

80Kr

79.916

2.286

> 1.5 x 1021 y

82Kr

81.913

11.593

Stable

83Kr

82.914

11.5

Stable

84Kr

83.912

56.987

Stable

86Kr

85.911

17.279

Stable

 

e)     Facts:

Image explanation:

The image represents the atom {krypton|Kr|atomic number 36|chemical component|element|noble gas|inert gas|argonon} eighty-six and also the aerosolized nature of the element.

 

Appearance:

A colorless, scentless gas that's inert to everything however element gas. The atom element eighty-six includes aline in its spectrum that's currently the quality live of length: one meter is outlined as specifically one, 650,763.73 wavelengths of this line8. Element is one in every of the rarest gases within the Earth’s atmosphere, accounting for less than one half per million by volume.

 

Natural abundance:

Krypton is obtained by distillation from air despite being one in every of the rarest gases within the Earth’s atmosphere, accounting for less than one half per million by volume.

 

f)     Uses:

·         Krypton is employed commercially as a unaggressive filling gas for fluorescent lights.

·         It is additionally employed in bound photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography.

·         Radioactive element was wont to estimate Soviet nuclear production8.

·         The gas may be a product of all nuclear reactors; therefore, the Russian share was found by subtracting the number that comes from Western reactors from the whole within the air.

·         The atom krypton-86 includes a line in its spectrum that's currently the quality live of length: one meter is outlined as specifically one, 650,763.73 wavelengths of this line.

 

 

 

E.    XENON:

a)    Basic Information:

Name: Xenon

Atomic Number: 54

Symbol: Xe

Atomic Mass: 131.29 amu

Group: 18

Melting Point: -111.9 °C (161.25 K,-169.42 °F)

Period: 5

Boiling Point: -108.1 °C (165.05 K, -162.58 °F) 

Block: p

Number of Neutrons: 77

State at room temperature: Gas

Crystal Structure: Cubic

Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d105s25p6

Density @ 293 K: 5.8971 g/cm3

Color: Colorless Gas

 

 

b)    Discovery:

Discovery date

1898

Discovered by

Sir William Ramsay and M.W. Travers

Origin of the name

The name is derived from the Greek 'Xenos' meaning stranger.

Obtained From

liquid air

 

c)       Atomic Structure:

 

Fig. 5. Atomic structure of Xenon

 

Number of Energy Levels: 5

 

First Energy Level: 2

Second Energy Level: 8

Third Energy Level: 18

Fourth Energy Level: 18

Fifth Energy Level: 8

 

d)    Isotopes:

Isotope

Atomic mass

Natural abundance (%)

Half-life Half life

124Xe

123.906

0.095

> 1017 yrs

126Xe

125.904

0.089

Stable

128Xe

127.904

1.91

Stable

129Xe

128.905

26.401

Stable

130Xe

129.904

4.071

Stable

131Xe

130.905

21.232

Stable

132Xe

131.904

26.909

Stable

134Xe

133.905

10.436

> 1.1 x 1016 yrs

136Xe

135.907

8.857

> 8.5 x 1021 yrs

 

 

e)     Facts:

Image explanation:

Electro flash. The icon used here reflects the use of the gas in camera flash technology, usually a tube filled with xenon gas, with electrodes on one end and a metal trigger plate at the middle of the tube.

 

 

Appearance:

A colorless, odorless gas that makes up 0.086 parts per million of the atmospheres. About half tone in a year is produced from liquid air and used for research purposes.

 

Biological role:

Xenon has no known biological role. It is not itself toxic, but its compounds are highly toxic because of their strong oxidizing characteristics.

 

Natural abundance:

Xenon is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.086 parts per million by volume. It can be found in the gases which evolve from certain mineral springs. Commercially it is obtained by extraction from liquid air9.

 

f)     Uses:

·       Xenon is little used outside research. However, it is used in certain specialized light sources which require an instant, intense light such as the high-speed electronic flash bulbs used by photographers.

·       The high volatility of this element’s electron structure produces this type of light9.

·       Xenon in a vacuum tube produces a beautiful blue glow when excited by an electrical discharge, and finds application in electron tubes, stroboscopic lights and bactericidal lamps.

 

F.    RADON:

a)    Basic Information:

Name: Radon

Atomic Mass: (222.0) amu

Symbol: Rn

Melting Point: -71.0 °C (202.15 K, -95.8 °F)

Group: 18

Boiling Point: -61.8 °C (211.35 K, -79.24 °F)

Period: 6

Number of Neutrons: 136

Block: p

Crystal Structure: Cubic

State at room temperature: Gas

Density @ 293 K: 9.73 g/cm3

Color: colorless

Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s26p6

Atomic Number: 86

 

 

b)    Discovery:

Discovery date

1902

Discovered by

F.E. Dorn

Origin of the name

The name is derived from radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay.

Obtained From

decay of radium

 

c)     Atomic Structure:

 

Fig.6. Atomic structure of Radon

Number of Energy Levels: 6

 

First Energy Level: 2

Second Energy Level: 8

Third Energy Level: 18

Fourth Energy Level: 32

Fifth Energy Level: 18

Sixth Energy Level: 8

 

d)    Isotopes:

 

Isotope

Atomic mass

Natural abundance (%)

Half life

211Rn

210.991

-

14.6 h

217Rn

216.906

-

0.6 milliseconds

220Rn

220.011

-

55.6 s

222Rn

222.018

-

3.823 d

 

e)     Facts:

Image explanation:

Imagery based around the familiar radiation hazard symbol.

 

The background “home” symbols mirror the detectable amounts of the component that may build up in homes.

 

Appearance:

Radon was 1st discovered because the gas made from metal because it decayed in sealed ampoules. It is colorless and odorless, and is chemically inert, but it is dangerous because it gives off alpha rays10. There is a detectable amount in the atmosphere, and concentrations can build up indoors in certain localities.

 

Biological role:

Radon has no known biological role. It is toxic due to its radioactivity, the main hazard arising from inhalation, as the element and its radioactive daughters collect on dust particles.

 

Natural abundance:

Radon is made naturally from the decay of a metal atom, 226Ra. It was first discovered as the gas produced from radium as it decayed in sealed ampoules. There is a detectable amount in the atmosphere, and concentrations can build up indoors in certain localities.

 

f)     Uses:

·       Radon decays into radioactive polonium and alpha rays, and this emitted radiation made radon useful in cancer therapy.

·       The gas was sealed in minute tubes called seeds or needles, and implanted into the tumor. The diseased tissue was thus destroyed by the radiation.

 

Applications:

·       Noble gases have varied necessary applications in lighting, attachment and area technology.

·       Most applications of gas compounds are either as oxidizing agents or as a way to store noble gases in an exceedingly dense type.

·       The Xe is just liberated as a gas. It’s rivaled solely by gas during this respect. The permeates are evens a lot of powerful oxidizing agents, and also the Xe fluorides ar smart fluorinating agents. Stable salts of Xe containing terribly high proportions of element by weight like Perfluoroammonium heptafluoroxenon,

·       Xenon-based compounds have conjointly been used for synthesizing carbocation’s stable at temperature in SO2ClF resolution.

·       Radioactive isotopes of atomic number 36 and Xe are tough to store and dispose, and compounds of those components are also a lot of simply handled than the aerosolized forms.

·       One of the foremost normally encountered uses of the noble gases in way of life is in lighting. Element is commonly used as an acceptable safe and inert atmosphere for the within of filament lightweight bulbs.

·       Argon is additionally used as AN inert atmosphere within the synthesis of air and wet sensitive compounds (as another for nitrogen)11.

·       Helium, because of its no reactivity (compared with burnable hydrogen) and lightness, is commonly employed in blimps and balloons.

·       Helium and element are terribly normally won’t to defend an attachment arc, and also the close base metal from the atmosphere throughout attachment.

·       Krypton is additionally employed in lasers that are utilized by doctors for eye surgery.

 

CONCLUSION:

Hence the on top of study on review of Alfred Bernhard Nobel gases conclude that,

·       The noble gases are the chemical components in cluster eighteen of the tabular array11.

·       They are the foremost stable because of having the utmost range of valence electrons their outer shell will hold.

·       Therefore, they seldom react with alternative components since they're already stable

·       Other characteristics of the noble gases are that all of them conduct electricity, fluoresce, are scentless and colorless, and are employed in several conditions once a stable part is required to take care of a secure and constant setting.

·       This chemical series contains inert gas, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.

·       The noble gases were antecedently observed as inert gases, however this term isn't strictly correct as a result of many of them do participate in chemical reactions.

 

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Linus Pauling (June 1933). "The Formulas of Antimonic Acid and the Antimonates” John H. (1968). Noble-Gas Chemistry. London: Methuen.

2.      Seppelt, Konrad (June 1979). "Recent developments in the Chemistry of Some Electronegative Elements". Accounts of Chemical Research 12 (6): 211–216.

3.       Smith GL, Mercier HP, Schrobilgen GJ (February 2007). "Synthesis of [F3S≡NXeF] [AsF6] and structural study by multi-NMR and Raman spectroscopy, electronic structure calculations, and X-ray crystallography". Inorganic Chemistry 46 (4): 1369–78.

4.      Smith GL, Mercier HP, Schrobilgen GJ (May 2008). "F5SN(H)Xe+; a rare example of xenon bonded to sp3-hybridized nitrogen; synthesis and structural characterization of [F5SN(H)Xe] [AsF6]". Inorganic Chemistry 47 (10): 4173–84.

5.      Khriachtchev, L., Pettersson, M., Runeberg, N., Lundell, J., Räsänen, M. (2000). "A stable argon compound". Nature 406 (6798): 874–876.

6.      Bartlett, N. (1962). "Xenon hexafluoroplatinate Xe+[PtF6]". Proceedings of the Chemical Society of London (6): 218

7.      Graham, L.; Graudejus, O., Jha N.K., and Bartlett, N. (2000). "Concerning the nature of XePtF6". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 197: 321–334.

8.      Claassen, H. H.; Selig, H.; Malm, J. G. (1962). "Xenon Tetrafluoride". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84 (18): 3593

9.      Hoppe, R.; Daehne, W.; Mattauch, H.; Roedder, K. (1962-11-01). "FLUORINATION OF XENON". Angew. Chem. Intern. Ed. Engl.; Vol: 1 (11): 599.

10.   Li, Wai-Kee; Zhou, Gong-Du; Mak, Thomas C. W. (2008). Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford University Press. p. 674

11.   M. Saunders, H. A. Jiménez-Vázquez, R. J. Cross, and R. J. Poreda (1993). "Stable compounds of helium and neon. He@C60 and Ne@C60". Science 259 (5100): 1428–1430.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 12.06.2019            Modified on 30.06.2019

Accepted on 19.07.2019            © A&V Publications All right reserved

Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019; 9(3):231-237.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00036.5