A Review- Benefits of Panchgavya therapy (Cowpathy) for health of humans

 

Mohd. Yaqub Khan1*, Maryada Roy2, Brijesh Kumar Saroj3, Sudhakar Dubey1,

Vineet Kumar Sharma1

1Azad Institute of Pharmacy and Research Azadpur, Adjacent CRPF Camp, Bijnour, Lucknow - 226 002 UP India

2Mangalayatan University, Beswan, Aligarh, UP India

3Goel Institutes of Pharmacy and Sciences, Lucknow, UP India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: Khanishaan16@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Panchgavya is a term used to describe five major substances, obtained from cow, which include cow’s urine, milk, ghee, curd and dung. All the five products possess medicinal properties against many disorders and are used for the medicinal purpose singly or in combination with some other herbs. This kind of treatment is called Panchgavya therapy or cowpathy. Panchgavya Therapy has been proposed as an alternate prophylactic and therapeutic approach for sound livestock and poultry health along with safeguarding human health. Its antimicrobial properties have gained the attention of the medical and veterinary professionals. Cow urine concoction (CUC) is having anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic effects; and useful against liver disorders and fever; inflammations and anemia. Cow milk is considered as a healthy food and is found to be effective in curing fever and pain; tumors; diabetes; kidney disorders and weaknesses and importantly act as a medium to administer medicine. Curd (dahi) is a blood purifier, and found useful in blood related problems; piles and gastro-intestinal disorders. Cow ghee has immunostimulatory properties. The application of cow dung to kill the germs of malaria and tuberculosis along with its antifungal properties require special mention. The Panchgavya products also show many other applications viz. excellent agricultural applications in the form of biofertilizers, vermicompost and biopesticides, which improves soil fertility and provide food grains free from the health hazards of using chemical fertilizers/pesticides. A systematic work needs to be carried out on chemical nature, biological activity, microbiology and pharmaceutical aspects and mechanism of bioactive compounds in Panchgavya. In the past due emphasis has not been given to the cow therapy which needs attention of scientific community.

 

KEYWORDS: Panchgavya, Cow urine concoction, Curd

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

Historically, Maharshi Vasishtha served the divine “Kamdhenu” Cow and Maharshi Dhanvantari offered to mankind a wonder medicine “Panchgavya” (a combination of cow urine, milk, dung, ghee and curd). In Sanskrit, all these five products are individually called “Gavya” and collectively termed as “Panchgavya”. Panchgavya had reverence in the scripts of Vedas (divine scripts of Indian wisdom) and Vrkshyurveda (Vrksha means plants and Ayurveda means health system). Indian cow breeds are unique and distinct species, both in their appearance and characteristics.

 

 

Cow is the backbone of Indian culture and rural economy, and sustains our life; represent cattle wealth and bio-diversity. It is known as “Kamdhenu” and “Gaumata” because of its nourishing nature like mother, the giver of all providing riches to humanity and is a store of medicines The Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, has detail mentions of importance of cow’s milk, curd, ghee, urine in the treatment of various human aliments1, 2.

 

Panchgavya Therapy/Chikitsa” (Cowpathy) has been proposed as an alternate prophylactic and therapeutic approach for sound livestock and poultry health along with safeguarding human health3, 4. Panchgavya products have been found to be beneficial in curing several human ailments and enhance the body’s immunity and resistance to fight various infections. Cowpathy induces immunomodulation by enhancing cellular and humoral immune responses, upregulates the lymphocyte proliferation activity, secretion of cytokines and macrophage activity; reduces apoptosis in lymphocytes thus helping them to survive and fight infection; acts as anti-aging factor by preventing the free radicals formation and efficiently repairing the damaged DNA5. Also, immunity is reducing drastically as a result of the environmental pollution, use of agrochemicals in agriculture and presence of pesticides, heavy metals, fungal toxins etc. in the food chain, in this scenario cowpathy is a good alternative6.

 

Cow also contributes to the health of environment-

• Ancient scripture state that “Suryaketu” nerve on cow’s back absorbs harmful radiations and cleanses atmosphere. Mere presence of cows is a great contribution to environment.

• India has approximately 30 crore cattle. Using their dung to produce bio gas, we can save 6.0 crore ton of firewood every year. This would arrest deforestation to that extent.

• Cow dung has important role in preserving environment.

• When we burn cow dung, it balances atmospheric temperature and kills germs in the air.

• Cow dung has antiseptic, anti radioactive and anti thermal properties. When we coat the walls and clean the floors of house with cow dung, it protects the dwellers. In 1984, gas leak in Bhopal killed more than 20,000 people. Those living in houses with cow dung coated walls were not affected. Atomic power centres in India and Russia even today use cow dung to shield radiation.

• African deserts were made fertile using cow dung.

• We can reduce acid content in water by treating it with cow dung.

• When we offer ghee in fire as part of ritualistic sacrifices, it strengthens the ozone layer and shields the earth from harmful radiations from Sun.

• A relationship between increasing number of butcher houses and earth quakes is being proven.

 

The overview highlights the salient points describing the wide applications, benefits, uses and importance of Panchgavya in our day to day life, well supported by the known scientific facts. The authors have compiled the information with ultimate goal of popularizing “Panchgavya Therapy” as an alternate prophylactic / therapeutic approach for sound livestock and poultry health along with human health and as devotion in the services of the “Holy Cow” which is central to the bio-chain.

 

Cow dung:

Cow dung also possesses antiseptic and disease preventive properties. Cow dung can act as skin tonic. Mixed with crushed neem leaves and smeared on skin - good for boils and heat rashes. Used as tooth polish -toothaches gets removed, so instead of toothpaste which is made of chemicals and dead bones of animals it is a good alternative. The fresh cow dung kills the germs of Malaria and T.B. Smoke from ashes actually increases our eyelids to close and open so many times that lot of water from the eyes comes out which increases the vision life of a person to old age also. Cow dung is antiseptic and has prophylactic (disease preventive) properties7. It destroys microorganisms that cause disease, fermentation and putrefaction. Cow dung has antifungal substance which inhibits growth of even coprophilous fungi and their activity is increased when combined with cow urine. Fresh cow dung is pure but once it has been laid on the ground awhile, it starts to change8. Cow dung is definite indication of prosperity as evident from Gobar-dhan Puja, next day of Deepawali (http://www.science-nature-religion.com).

 

The presence of antifungal substance in cow dung is quiet noteworthy for inhibiting growth of Corprophilous fungi. Eupenicillium bovifimosum present in cow dung produces Patulodin-like compounds viz. CK2108A and CK2801B that possess antifungal activity at a greater rate9, 10. In order to study the fate of drugs, cow dung can be considered as a relevant model ecosystem. Isolation of two basidiomycetes viz., strain NRRL6464 and Cyathus stercoreus has given rise to the fact that they can degrade lignocellulose and in addition C. stercoreus can degrade drug like enrofloxacin11. Again biopesticides exert their harmful effect on animal as well as human health by causing immunosuppression along with autoimmunity and hypersensitivity reactions and it is a burning issue nowadays in a country like India12. In this regard the use of cow dung for bioremediation of various pesticides is found to be effective because of the presence of higher concentration of nutrients and larger microbial population 13, 14.

 

Cow dung has been considered as a Gold Mine due its wide applications in the field of agriculture, energy resource, environmental protection and therapeutic applications.

It’s important uses are:

Fuel:

Dung as fuel is well known for rural kitchen. Cow dung patties (gootte) are used for cooking. Roasting of potato, sweet potato in it is still considered the best fuel as against electric oven. Traditional wisdom says that in burning these cow dung cakes, the temperature never rises beyond a certain point; ensuring overheating does not destroy the nutrients in the food. Besides, the smoke of gobar clears the air of germs.

Gobar Gas Plants:

Gobar has also been successfully used to produce bio-gas (methane) and generate electricity for consumer use. Biogas is used in cooking, for lighting in homes and streets. It can be used for driving self-combustion engines for various uses like running a generator to produce electricity. The slurry (residue) could also be used for production of manure, which when spread on crops acts as an excellent fertilizer. Dung for Bio-gas and its slurry for manure is providing renewable cooking energy and slurry for compost.

 

Fertilizer:

Cow dung is the best fertilizer. Composting makes it even more powerful fertilizer. It is rich in nitrogen.

 

Organic farming:

Different types of bio-fertilizers using cow dung and urine and vegetative waste have been developed using compost method and vermiculture. Cow dung keeps the rotting compost antiseptic.

 

Seed protector:

Covering seeds in dung before planting helps to protect against pests. It is an excellent conditioner for the soil.

 

Floor coating:

Mixed with mud and water serves to coat the floors and walls in mud houses. As a mud additive it dries up slippery mud puddles and improves water absorption of mud. Anti-septic property is also the attribute of cow dung, which is mixed with clay to form a plastering medium for mud huts. Thin coating of dung for cooking place, havan kund, havan platform, mud house, floors, walls provide antiseptic surface.

 

Mud brick additive:

Mud and cow dung ashes become like cement, by improved resistance to disintegration. It is a proven fact that mud huts plastered with cow dung keep insects and reptiles away. This is the reason why people in the countryside still store grain in huge earthen pots plastered with cow dung and urine to keep it free from insect manifestations.

 

Smoke producer:

Smoldering cow patties keep away mosquitoes. Apparently, the traditional Indian village system of wiping the floor daily with a mixture of water and fresh cow dung assures that flies will not settle there.

 

Heat source:

Cow dung is naturally hot and compost makes it hotter. It can be put in glass house to warm them or run pipes through it to get hot water.

 

Pot cleaner:

Pots can be cleaned using cow dung in the same way one uses brass polish or soap. It absorbs oil and fat. Dung ash is a very good cleaning agent for utensils and can avoid use of chemicals like vim, which leave residual effect.

 

Pond pH balancer:

Thrown into pond neutralizes acid.

 

Purifier:

Possesses natural antiseptic qualities.

 

Pest Control:

Dung ash also helps in controlling pests.

 

Environment Protection:

Cow dung from a single cow in its life span can produce 4500 liters of biogas which is equivalent to burning 6, 80, 00,000 tons of wood. This will help us save 14 crore trees from cutting and burning and thus give environment protection. Fertilizers from cow dung acts as effective pollution controllers for soil, water and air.

 

Therapeutic uses of cow dung

Skin tonic:

Mixed with crushed neem leaves and smeared on skin - good for boils and heat rashes.

 

Tooth polish:

Toothaches gets removed, so instead of toothpaste which is made of chemicals and dead bones of animals it is a good alternative.

 

It has been observed that smoke from ashes actually increases our eyelids to close and open so many times that lot of water from the eyes comes out which increases the vision life of a person to old age also. Cow dung is superior to other dung because it is antiseptic and has prophylactic (disease preventive) properties. It destroys micro-organisms that cause disease, fermentation and putrefaction. Other dungs need to be composted to be purified. It should be kept in mind that fresh cow dung is pure but once it has laid on the ground awhile, it starts to change.

 

Cow Urine:

Urine in general has got antimicrobial property. Heavy medication of allopathy has frustrated people for which they are now using cow urine: an important element of panchgavya15. It acts as an integral component of Panchagavya in enhancing immune responses as have been tested by various workers16, 17. Cow urine fulfils the deficiency of elements and reduces the increased elements in the body. It contains 24 types of salts and the medicines made from cow urine are used to cure several diseases18, 19. The contents of cow urine include: 95% water, 2.5% urea; minerals and salt; 2.5% hormones and enzymes. Alongside all these it also contains calcium and phosphorus; salts and carbonic acid; potash, nitrogen and ammonia; manganese and iron; sulphur, phosphates and potassium; urea and uric acid; amino acids and enzymes; cytokine and lactose etc.20. Copper is capable of destroying diseases and comprehensively act as an antidote. Probable role in immune enhancement are played by cytokines and amino acids. Singularly, gomutra has got all such chemical properties as well as potentialities and constituents capable of removing all the ill effects and imbalances in the body21, 22. The excision wound model in Wistar albino rats reveal that cow urine hasten the process of wound healing due to external injuries23.

 

Cow urine has many beneficial properties particularly in the areas of agriculture and therapeutics. It has also been observed during the scientific research that the urine of Indian cows is highly effective and interestingly almost nil or few medicinal properties are present in the urine of crossbred, exotic cows, buffaloes, etc. Recent researches showed that cow urine enhances the immune status of an individual through activating the macrophages and augmenting their engulfment power as well as bactericidal activity. Its major implications are as follows:

 

Agriculture:

Distillation waste (plant herbage after distillation) and cow’s urine have been used for production of vermicompost. Addition of cow’s urine in composting pits led to production of superior quality vermicompost with higher concentrations of major macro- and micro-nutrients and was found to be superior in terms of useful microflora (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes). Application of this vermicompost in pots significantly improved the yields of leucerne (Medicago sativa). Cow urine acts like a disinfectant and thus purifies atmosphere and improves the fertility of the land.

 

Biopesticides:

Cow urine as such and/or after addition of neem leaves is a wonderful biopesticide. Such biopesticides are safe to use, do not accumulate in the food chain and as such do not have the harmful effects like chemical pesticides.

 

Electricity and Kitchen fuel:

Urine utility has been explored for generating small power to run electronic clock and efforts are on to light torch light bulb. Cow dung and urine also mixed with mud and straw to make dried cakes that fuel kitchen fires. When this becomes successful, each house in rural and urban area having no electricity can have light without any recurring cost. It is possible that further intensive research efforts may make it possible to use this source of energy for illumination of a small space in villages.

 

Therapeutic Uses of cow urine

Skin diseases:

It is also very helpful in all kind of skin problems, itching, sunburns, eczema, psoriasis, acne, etc. It also renders the hair soft and clean. Cow urine is entirely sterile after secretion and has antiseptic effect.

 

Stomach, kidney and heart diseases:

Cow dung and urine are the best cures for stomach diseases, heart diseases, kidney ailments and tuberculosis. Cow’s urine is prescribed as an ingredient of various plasters and mixtures (sometimes with fermented wine) or alone, as an antidote for obesity, as a purgative; for eliminating vermin from an ulcer; vayu disorders, abdominal dropsy and many other diseases.

 

Stones:

It can be used for stones (kidney, gall bladder etc.). A glass of fresh cow urine should   be taken as a first thing in the morning for 21 days. Uric acid in cow urine dissolves these stones to a manageable size.

 

Diabetes:

For diabetic youngsters it controls sugar level and keeps fit.

 

Liver problems:

Daily doses of 1 to 2 ounces of warm cow urine are used to treat cirrhosis of the liver. Urine as such and or mixed with honey/salt is also administered for Liver and other problems.

 

Jaundice:

Antimony sulfide and cow urine taken internally are used to cure malignant jaundice.

 

Athletes’ feet:

It has a cure for athletes’ feet. It has been observed that people cleaning the cow milk barn by bare foot don’t suffer from athletes’ foot.

 

Immunostimulant:

Cow’s Urine has immunostimulant activity in plants and animals.

 

Anticonvulsant agent:

An herbal preparation popular in Nigeria is based on cow’s urine and some herbs known as cow urine concoction (CUC). Over fifty chemical compounds have been identified in CUC. Its major pharmacological actions are anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic effects.

 

 

Cysts:

For the case of sebaceous cysts (large swellings that exude a fatty liquid on bursting), incision followed by washing with cow’s urine is prescribed. Another treatment is the surgical incision and the removal of fat followed by cauterization of the wound. Cow urine acts like a disinfectant and prophylactic agent and thus purifies atmosphere.

 

Bioenhancer:

A cow urine distillate fraction has been identified as a bioenhancer of the activities of commonly used antibiotics, anti-fungal and anti-cancer drugs. The activity of Rifampicin, a front-line anti-tubercular drug used against tuberculosis, increases by about 5-7 folds against E. coli and 3-11 folds against Gram-positive bacteria. Bioenhancers are substances, which do not possess drug activity of their own but promote and augment the bioactivity or bioavailability or the uptake of drugs in combination therapy. Such bioenhancers have been earlier isolated only from plant sources. It has been found that cow urine also act as a bioenhancer and increases the efficacy of the antibiotics against infectious agents. Bio enhancement has also been observed with other drugs viz. Ampicillin, Isoniazid, Clotrimazole, Cyanocobalamine etc. Bioenhancer activity has been found to reduce the antibiotic dose per day and duration of treatment in tuberculosis patients24.

 

Anti-cancer properties:

Cow urine possesses anti- cancer properties.

 

Cow milk

Cow milk is a healthy food because of low calorie, low cholesterol and high micro-nutrients, protein, calcium, and vitamins, and plays an important role in meeting requirements of many essential nutrients. It contains carotenes, vitamins A, B complex group and C. It has rejuvenatory health protecting properties and is one of the best vitalizers. It has bio-protective role in human health and is easily digestible25. It is found to be effective in curing fever and pain; tumors; diabetes and weaknesses and importantly act as a medium to administer medicine. It delay the processes involved in aging26. Milk has also got fungicidal properties. While testing milk of cow against powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) it has been proven that at high concentration it acts in a better way than the conventional fungicides. Similarly milk can also be used as a fungicidal to protect animal and human health27, 28

 

Cow milk has been useful in kidney disorders due to its low protein content protein compared to buffalo milk. As a rich source of vitamins like B2, B3 and vitamin A and mineral Zinc it help increasing immunity. Antimicrobial effects are due to immunoglobulins (IgA), lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase and vitamin B12-binding protein. Lactoferrin B shows marked antifungal activity29, 30, 31, 32. Its yellow substance “Carotene” (Vitamin A) increases visual strength. Cow’s milk allows better absorption of nutrients. Cow milk is a tonic for health, is energetic and conducive to heart and brain, and advances age and potency. It helps in reducing acidity, and thus reduces chances of peptic ulcer. Practically having half the fat content of buffalo milk, cow milk reduces risk of coronary heart diseases. Low fat content also helps one keep fit and to check obesity. It not only helps against diabetes but also has good sugar for diabetic patients.

 

As natural anti-oxidants it neutralizes oxidative stress produced in body through action on free radicals. A skin care cream containing cream or ghee from cow’s milk is said to render the skin fair and smooth33, 34.

 

Cow milk is beneficial because

Nutritious:

Cow’s milk contains substances like carotenes, vitamin A, vitamins of B complex group and vitamin C. It also contains substances like flavones, sterols and phenols. All these chemical agents delay the processes involved in aging. It is known that the fatty acids and amino acids present in the fat of cow milk are different than those in buffalo milk. These components render cow milk very nutritious and growth promoting for infants and children.  The use of milk proteins as nutritional supplements to enhance dietary protein quality is very feasible as they can provide lysine and tryptophan, the limiting amino acids of wheat and maize proteins. A 250 ml serving of cow milk contains riboflavin equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement of a pre-school child.

 

Bio-Protective Role in Human Health:

Milk plays an important role in meeting the requirements of many essential nutrients, and hence milk is considered as a protective food. The proteins of milk are of a high biological value. The digestibility of milk proteins is rated higher (96%) then that of plant proteins (74-78%). It is easily digestible, the amino acids composition makes its protein easily digestible, and reaching the nerves of the brain it acts as a brain tonic and is good for kidney.

 

Lactose favors the absorption of calcium and phosphorous and the synthesis of some B complex vitamins in the small intestine. The lactic acid bacilli present in milk are important. Lactose, the principal milk sugar, promotes the growth of lactic acid producing bacteria in intestine thus creates a desirable condition that inhibits the growth of proteolytic and putrefying bacteria in the intestine and may increase the solubilization and absorption of calcium. Lactose also promotes the utilization of magnesium and phosphorus.

Kidney disorders:

The low content of protein in cows’ milk from buffalo milk makes it ideal for infants and people with renal disorders. Patients with impaired kidney functions rely on protein with high biological value for relieving strain on the excretory function of the kidney.

 

Immunity:

It is a rich source of vitamins like B2, B3 and vitamin A which help increasing immunity. It is a good source of zinc, which is required for synthesis of insulin by the pancreas and for immunity function. The substances in milk which have an antimicrobial effect are immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase and vitamin B12-binding protein. The immunoglobulins, mainly IgA are not broken down by the digestive enzymes. Thus, they not only act against the microorganisms in the intestine but also prevent the absorption of foreign proteins. Lactoferrin is an iron binding glycoprotein that occurs in cow milk at a level of 0.2 mg/ml. A number of milk enzymes viz. lactoperoxidase, xanthin oxidase and lysozyme are involved in antibacterial mechanisms.

 

Vision:

Its yellow substance “Carotene” (Vitamin A) increases the visual strength. Vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of widespread blindness among children in India. A 250 ml serving of cow milk contain vitamin A sufficient to meet 75% daily vitamin A requirement of pre-school child.

 

Ulcers:

It helps in reducing acidity, a common problem today and thus reduces chances of peptic ulcer.

 

Anti-cancer properties:

Cow milk fat component is potential anti-carcinogenic agent, which help in reducing chances of colon, breast and skin cancer. A specific fatty acid (a cis-trans isomer of linoleic acid) has been identified in milk fat, which appears to be an inhibitor of cancerous growth. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in cow milk prevents the uncontrolled spread of cancer-affected cells.

 

Heart ailments:

It contains practically half the fat content of buffalo milk thus reduces the risk of coronary heart diseases. It is specifically beneficial to heart patients by reducing formation of serum cholesterol. It has been suggested that the regular intake of milk keeps blood vessels healthy.

 

Obesity:

Low fat content helps one keep fit and to check obesity. Unique physical, chemical and biological properties of milk fat contribute to the ease of digestibility compared with other fats. Milk turns down the tendency of the fat cells to store the day’s calories, and increases the amount frittered away as heat. Calcium is a critical signaling agent, helping all sorts of cells figure out what they need to do. Apparently, the type of cell that listens when calcium talks is the fat cell. When there’s plenty of calcium in the blood, fat cells get the message to quit storing fat and start burning it. Calcium pills aren’t a perfect substitute for the complex package of nutrients found in milk.

 

Natural anti-oxidants:

It is one of the best natural antioxidants and thus neutralizes the oxidative stress produced in body through action on free radicals. A skin care cream containing cream or ghee from cow’s milk is said to render the skin fair and smooth.

 

Absorption of nutrients:

Less phosphorous content of cows’ milk allows better absorption of calcium. Calcium and Phosphorus in cow milk help in balanced absorption of nutrients and are good for healthy growth especially for children. Potassium helps in development of healthy mind. Studies show that milk and products may decrease the risk of osteoporosis through their effects on growth.

 

Diabetes:

It not only helps against diabetes but also has good sugar for diabetic patients. Milk consumption, therefore, enables the diabetic person to obtain the biologically highly valuable milk proteins without running the risk of rise in blood glucose levels. Being high in water content can be supplied both as food and fluid.

 

Anemia:

A distinct advantage of cows’ milk over human milk is that it’s a better source of vitamin K which prevents hemorrhagic disease of newborn. Folic acid prevents anemia and neural tube defects in newborn.

 

Tonic for health:

It is best for infant feeding after mother’s milk and a good supplementary food for adults. It is a fine blend of all the nutrients necessary for growth and development of young once. There is general agreement that breast milk of the mother is the best food for infant. Human colostrum is rich in immunologic factors, which prevent infection in the newborn babies. However, changing social and cultural patterns have led to change from breast to formula feed especially among urban elites and working mothers. Cow milk is the best alternative option in such a situation. Also, milk is the first food a child takes to survive and is the best and most complete of all foods. It has more minerals and vitamin K except iron and copper, than human milk to meet the nutritional requirements of young infants. Cow milk contains tonic, is energetic and conducive to heart and brain, and advances age and potency.

 

Cow milk, a source of microbial wealth

Agriculture:

Improving soil fertility is one of the most common tactics to increase agricultural and forest production. Plant beneficial bacteria from cow milk have been isolated and inoculation of seeds or soil with these beneficial microorganisms for crop improvement has been practiced for a number of years. Milk of Sahiwal cow was found superior to human, Holstein cow and buffalo. The 3 strains Bacillus lentimorbus NBRI0725, Bacillus subtilis NBRI1205, and Bacillus lentimorbus NBRI3009 isolated from Sahiwal cow milk have the ability to control phytopathogenic fungi and promote plant growth under field conditions, increases tolerance for abiotic stresses, and solubilise phosphate under abiotic stress conditions. Screening of bacterial strains isolated from milk under in vitro conditions possesses the ability to suppress plant pathogenic fungi viz. Colletotrichum falcatum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora palmivora, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aspergillus niger, Curvularia lunata, Pythium aphanidermatum.

 

Cow curd (Dahi)

Curd from cow milk is considered “Vatanashak”, blood purifier, “Tridoshnashak” and found useful in “Pitta”, blood related problems, piles and gastrointestinal disorders. Cow curd is an efficient probiotic, there is a hope to control infections in a nondrug manner. Cow curd (Dahi) or Matha (whey or butter milk) is considered as digestive, nutritive and useful in gastrointestinal ailments by checking or controlling the growth of harmful organism. A lot of lactic acid producing bacteria is present in curd and buttermilk that produces antifungal metabolites viz. cyclic dipeptides, phenyllactic acid as well as proteinaceous compounds and 3-hydroxylated fatty acid35, 36.

 

Since the ancient times, curd has been used either with sugar (powdered sugar) or with black salt and zira. In animal health also the whey with salts is given to neonatal calves to treat diarrhea and to get rid of intestinal parasites. In adult animals, particularly the milched buffaloes, it is being given to enhance their production. Along with concentrate whey is given to bullocks to increase their draught power37.

 

Cow ghee

Cow ghee is traditionally believed to improve memory, voice, vision, intelligence and body’s resistance to infections. It has anti-ageing factors, exhibits antichollestric and immunostimulant activity, good for cholesterol and heart patients. Cow butter is a blood purifier, increases the beauty. Cow ghee promotes healing of wounds, helpful in preventing and controlling paralysis and asthma. Immunostimulant potential of cow ghee in panchgavya formulations has been indicated by increase in neutrophil adhesion, haemagglutination (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in rats38. Cow ghee when combined to certain selected herbals can cure skin diseases and can facilitate healing of wounds when mixed with honey39, 40. Panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow’s ghee is sedative in nature. Panchagavya ghrita also shows hepatoprotective activity in rat liver against carbon tetra chloride poisoning41.

 

·         Cow ghee (butter-fat) is traditionally believed to improve memory, voice, vision, intelligence and body’s resistance to infections.

 

·         It exhibits antichollestric activity, and immunostimulant activity.

 

·         Ayurvedic practitioners believe that cow’s milk and ghee are memory enhancers.

 

·         Cow ghee is helpful for eye sight and improves digestion. It is ‘Tridosh Nashak, energetic, brain tonic, tonic, fragrant, madhuri, cold and over all the best of the ‘ghee’ (butter milk). It has antiageing factors.

 

·         A formulation containing cow ghee, honey, vitamins and a non-fat fraction of cow milk is being attempted as a micronutrient.

 

·         The modern doctors recommend not using any fat except cow ghee by a cholesterol patient. The use of cow ghee does not increase cholesterol and has no bad effect on heart.

 

·         Cow butter is a blood purifier and increases the beauty.

 

·         Cow ghee promotes healing of wounds.

 

·         It is helpful in preventing and controlling paralysis and asthma.

 

·         The ghee obtained from cow milk is very much useful for persons having weak eyesight.

 

·         Cow ghee as well as urine has been seen to stimulate immune processes in experimental animals.

 

·         Ghee as a Suppository Base: Cow ghee, in combination with some other bases, has been seen to serve as an excellent material for preparation of suppositories.

 

·         A Panchgavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow ghee have been evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures,spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the Panchgavya formulation is sedative in nature.

 

·         10 gms of cow ghee used in fire sacrifice produces one ton of oxygen. When cow ghee is burned with rice it produces Etholine oxide, propylene oxide, ethelene oxide and formaldehyde, which give immunity against bacteria, which are used in operation theatre. Propylene oxide induces rain.

 

·         Cow ghee has immense power to protect human body from the ill effect of radioactive waves thus can save the environment from atomic radiation.

 

How to Promote Panchgavya

• The use of Gobar (cow dung) and Gomutra (cow urine) of indigenous breeds of cattle should be promoted extensively by educating farmers the benefits of different manures/bio-fertilisers, composts, pest-repellents, pesticides and biogas to understand the economic prospects of their own resources and as a long term measure for sustainable and healthy agriculture production at reduced costs.

 

• Centers should be established and recognized for promotion of the production and use of Panchagavya as an alternative source of energy, such as Gobar gas, alternative methods of farming, and to initiate, undertake and promote research and innovations in the field of utility and contribution of cow, its progeny and other cattle to the agriculture and bio-diversity including bio- energy and biofertilizers etc. for bio-friendly environment.

 

• Proper attention should be given on Panchgavya therapy for inducing protection against several diseases in the livestock/poultry populations. There should be a drive for the verification of clinical and medicinal claims made in ancient literature related to health sciences (medicinal properties) of Panchgavya products.

 

• Comparative chemical, microbiological and immunological analysis of Panchgavya of various indigenous cattle breeds with special reference to their agricultural, medicinal and nutritional significance should be evaluated scientifically.

 

• The drug control authorities should, after thorough examination, include such products in Indian pharmacopia so that their production and quality may be suitably standardized.

 

• A sound data-base or data-collection system be developed for economic contribution of cattle products and bi-products.

 

Panchgavya need to be emphasized in Veterinary College, Research Institutes Universities and Hospitals. Research programmes should be undertaken, encouraged and supported in national institutions, universities and non-government institutions. Krishi Vigyan Kendras and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) should be encouraged for promoting Panchgavya.

 

• Integrated and coordinated approach should be made for promoting scientific outlook and research on Panchgavya through information sharing by organizing conferences, seminars, workshops, exhibitions and orientation programmes.

 

• Mass communication by publishing literature, research/popular articles, books, periodicals,

journals, producing films and documentaries, conducting training programmes and launching website( s) on the implications of Panchgavya.

 

• Special R and D fund should be created to encourage both public and private sector institutions to undertake result-oriented and time-bound projects in these areas.

 

• The gaushalas, the gau sadans, maintain even the non-milking, old and sick cows along with those that are physically handicapped and need human care and attention for survival. These should be enhanced and motivated for evolution of better manures, pesticides and medicines and motivated for becoming self-sustaining by selling or properly utilizing the dung and urine from even dry cattle. Complete veterinary cover should be provided to these societies.

 

• Efforts must be made to upgrade indigenous cow breeds with suitable other indigenous breeds. Special draught breeds of cattle should be developed and improved genetically, so that this valuable source of energy remains available to the farmer, especially the small and marginal farmers.

 

• The availability of cow milk, cow curd, cow ghee, setting up of gobar gas plants, large scale organic farming etc. should be ensured. Manufacturing units, transportation and marketing of panchgavya products should be facilitated and strengthened.

• Development and evaluation of technology for optimal production and efficacy of cattle and cattle products (dung cake and biogas) and their best utilization as source of mechanical, thermal, and electrical energy along with agricultural and medicinal benefits from cattle should be promoted.

 

• Efficacy and utility of radiation-preventing ability of cow dung should be explored in details.

 

• The benefits of taking cow milk should be propagated. Cow milk should be separately labelled and marketed on a large scale.

• Utilization of cow milk as immunogen transmission vehicles through hyper-immune cow should be explored. In this hyper-immune state, the antigens find their way into the milk of the cow, which when administered to humans, especially children; render them immune to the particular disease.

 

• Draught animal power usage for agricultural purposes as well as for transport needs to be restored, by developing improved ploughing implements and harnesses.

 

• For ensuring availability of labeled cow milk, cow curd and cow ghee to satisfy consumer needs and demands.

 

• Use of oestrogens/oxytocin and similar drugs increasing the yield of milk of cows should be banned for reasons of health of cows.

 

• Slaughter of cow and its progeny, should be prohibited.

 

• The use of bullocks in ploughing and bullockdriven tractors, generation of power through indigenous electrical equipment and carts should be encouraged.

 

• Encouragement should be given to research in cow urine therapy such as that done by the Govigyan Anusandan Kendra, Nagpur and CSIR at Lucknow and other centers, which led to the grant of U.S. Patents.

 

• For this rewards is to be given against future production of milk, bio-fertilisers, bio-pesticides, vermi-composting, generating bio-energy and Panchgavya medicines etc. which may also help solve the problem of working capital.

Important Products of Panchgavya and Their Uses

Kamdhenu Medohar Ark: For obesity problems

 

Kamdhenu Harde Churna: For acidity, gas trouble, constipation and other related trouble.

 

 

Kamdhenu Malish Tel (Oil): Highly effective in different types of arthritis and useful for body massage.

 

Kamdhenu Ashtamangal Ghrut Good: Nervine tonic improves memory, promotes concentration. Good health supplement for children and elder person.

 

Kamdhenu Jatyadi Ghrut/Ghee: Useful in infected and cut wounds, ulceration. Also useful in fistula and bed sore. Enhances wound-healing process, presumably by promoting cell-division. A combination of ghee and herbal antibiotic is more advantageous.

 

Kamdhenu Kshar Churna: Effective in various types of cough, bronchitis and asthma. Also helpful in Gastro intestinal disorders.

 

Kamdhenu Chandanadi Yamak: Useful in burns, boils and skin rashes.

 

Kamdhenu Kushmandavaleh: Highly effective in acidity, and gastric ulcer. Useful in Jaundice as a liver tonic.

 

Kamdhenu Hingawadya Ghrut: Relieves fullness of abdomen and regulates bowel movement. Helpful in thread worm infestations.

 

Kamdhenu Kasisadi Tela: Highly effective on piles, bleeding piles and helps in healing fissure and Fistula.

 

Kamdhenu Arshohar Marham: Highly effective in piles, also heals and relives fissures and fistula.

 

Kamdhenu Asava: Relieves from cough and cold, useful in asthma and leucoderma.

 

Kamdhenu Bal Pal Rasa: Acts as nervine tonic, improves health and promotes proper growth for children below 15 years of age.

 

Kamdhenu Nari Sanjeevani: Very useful in ladies problems like menstruation, weakness etc.

 

Kamdhenu Pramehari: Effective in general debility.

 

Kamdhenu Tela: Useful in all diseases of nose, ear and eye.

 

Kamdhenu Vibhitikavaleha: Effective in asthma and all conditions of cough.

 

Kamdhenu Pathyadi Vatika: Removes bad breath and cures mouth ulcers.

 

Kamdhenu Panchagavya Ghrit: Useful in chronic fever, anaemic conditions, chronic disorders and psychosomatic disorders.

Kamdhenu Tikiya: Improves skin complexion and adds Luster to the skin.

 

Kamdhenu Isab Tikiya: Useful in all skin disease.

 

Kamdhenu Dant Rakshak: Very useful for dental care. Effective in gingivits, pyorrhea, protects gums and removes bad breath.

 

Kamdhenu Ubatan (Face-pack): Helpful in vulgaris. Improves luster of skin and tones up face look.

 

Kamdhenu Keshnikhar: Highly effective in alopecia and dandruff, regular application improves condition of hair and prevents premature graying of hair and falling.

 

Kamdhenu Dhup: Purifies air in the room. Used during ‘Puja’ and at any other time whenever desired.

 

Ashtamangal Ghrita: Contain Cow’s Ghee, Brahmi (calamus bach), saindhave (chloride of sodium), sayssurea (kuth), mustard, anatmul (Indian sarsaparilla), long pepper and a few more herbs. Administration of the formulation in children enhances their memory power. It is also useful as a therapy for senile dementia.

 

Kamdhenu Marham (ointment containing cow’s urine and ark made from cow dung along with some herbs): Effective in various eczematous conditions, psoriasis treatment, infective wounds etc. Some Ayurvedic physicians also export this formulation.

 

Kamdhenu Shwitranashak Vati and Lepa (prepared from non-volatile solids of cow’s urine and herbs): Highly effective in leucoderma and alopecia aereata.

 

Kamdhenu Ghanvati / Arka: Useful in all diseases as it increases body’s immunological defences. It is highly effective against several skin infections and is seen to be effective against renal disorders. A volatile fraction of cow’s urine prepared by distillation process is available as ‘ark’, and a residue remaining after removal of volatile matter and water from cow’s urine is vati.

 

Kamdhenu Takrarishta (prepared by fermentation of buttermilk along with some herbs): Relieves constipation, regulates bowels, useful in piles, worm infection, diarrhoea and dehydrated condition Effective principally against micro-organisms which cause food poisoning.

 

Shwitra Nashak Vati and Shwitra Nashak Lep

 

Kamdhenu Agricultural Products: Wormi Compost and Kamdhenu Pest Repellent.

 

•A mixture of two volumes of ghee, five volumes each of curd and milk, 40 of urine and 48 of dung, two per cent of common salt and 0.01 % of baker’s yeast - was found to be the most effective and economical, to suppress pathogen.

 

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES:

Thus it can be inferred that Panchgavya/Cowpathy, a new version of ancient science, is definitely a promising formulation in the years to come. Therefore, educating people about the benefits of cow and panchgavya can provide solution to problems of shortage of food grains, fuel, shelter, good health, nutrition, eradication of poverty, and unemployment, and as an alternate source of energy. Application of cowpathy in treating animal diseases needs much promotional activities since only limited literature is available. Having vital medicinal potential and prospectives for the benefit of mankind, the panchgavya therapy needs attention of scientific community for its documented validation, worldwide acceptance, promotion and popularity. A systematic work needs to be carried out on chemical nature, biological activity, microbiology and pharmaceutical aspects and mechanism of bioactive compounds in Panchagavya along with promotional clinical trials both in preventing and treating diseases of humans as well as their livestocks. A combined effort of scientist, researchers and clinicians will definitely strengthen this alternate low cost therapy having no side effects, and thus inspire confidence in the public about its good virtues. The panchgavya theory of ayurveda should gain popularity not only in traditional families but also in highly educated and scientific society. Necessary support of scientists as well as researchers and clinicians is desired in order to strengthening the miraculous effects of cow urine therapy and other panchagavya elements, which will inspire both physicians and public to adapt and propagate this wonderful therapy for the beneficial health benefits and help fighting various diseases and disorders of both animals and humans.

 

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Received on 11.04.2015          Accepted on 15.05.2015        

© Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 5(2): April-June 2015; Page 115-125

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5659.2015.00019.3