Studies on Soil Mycoflora in Chilli Field of Thiruvarur District

 

*Gomathi S., Ambikapathy V. and Panneerselvam A.

P.G. and Research Department of Botany and Microbiology, A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur (Dt)- 613503, Tamil Nadu ,India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: mathigo10@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Soil is a complex and dynamic environment in which the biological activity is mostly governed by microorganisms. This study deals with the monthly variation of fungal population in chilli field of four different taluk Thiruvarur, Nannilam, Kudavasal and Valangaiman of Thiruvarur(Dt). In the present investigation 40 different species belonging to Deuteromycetes, Ascomycetes and Phycomycetes were isolated using PDA medium and identification by using standard manuals. The maximum number of fungal isolates were recorded in valangaiman (20) when compared to other stations. The dominant species recorded were Aspergillus and Penicillium .

 

KEYWORDS: Fungal diversity, Chilli field, Thiruvarur district

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The beneficial effects of soil microorganisms are manifold and range from nitrogen fixation and organic matter decomposition to breakdown of metabolic by products and agrochemical, enhancing the bioavailability of nitrates, sulphates, phosphates and essential metals (Bridge and Spooner, 2001).

 

Fungi are an important component of the soil microbiota typically constituting more of the soil biomass than bacteria, depending on soil depth and nutrient conditions (Ainsworth and Bishy,1995). The role of fungi in the soil is an extremely complex one and it is fundamental to the soil ecosystem. They perform ecological services that strongly impact the quality of human life and have enormous potential for providing economic benefits. Microfungi play a focal role in nutrient cycling by regulating soil biological activity (Arunachalam et.al., 1997). However, the rate at which organic matter is decomposed by the microbes is interrelated to the chemical composition of the substrate, as well as environmental agricultural field. Some studies dealt with the influence of plant community (Chung et al., 2007., Carney and Matson.,2006).

 

It is estimated that there are 1.5 million fungal species on earth, of which only about 70,000 have been described so far (Hawksworth and Rossman, 1997).The present research is an attempt to study the fungal diversity from four different stations of Thiruvarur District.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Collection of soil sample:

Soil samples were collected from Thiruvarur, Nannilam, Kudavasal and Valangaiman.

 

Soil analysis:

The Physico-chemical parameters of the soil samples were analysed in testing laboratory, Dept of Agriculture, Govt of Tamil nadu, Tiruchirapalli-20.

 

Isolation of fungi:

Isolation of fungi was performed by serial dilution technique using potato dextrose agar medium.

 

The medium was prepared and sterilized at 121C (15 lbs pressure) for 15 minutes. Then it was supplemented with 1% streptomycin to prevent bacterial growth. The medium was poured in to the sterile petriplates. The serially diluted soil samples were directly inoculated in to Petriplates containing PDA medium.The inoculated plates were incubated at 282C for 3 days.

 

 

Pure Culture and identification:

Purification of the fungi were made by single spore culture method. A portion of the growing edge of each colony was picked up with the help of a pair of needles and mounted on a clean slide with lactophenol cotton blue.

 

The slide was gently heated over the flame so as to remove air bubbles. The excess stain was wiped off with the help of tissue paper and then the cover slip was sealed with transparent nail polish for semi permanent. The slide was observed under microscope and microphotographs of the individual fungal species were also taken using Nikon optiphot Microscope (Japan).

 

Identification of the organisms were made with the help of Manual of soil fungi (Gillman, 1957), Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes (Ellis 1971), More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes (Ellis and Ellis 1976), Hypohmycetes (Subramanian 1971).

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Though the fungal species are cosmopolitan in distribution, their population in the particular habit, due to fluctuation in the Physico chemical parameter. In the present study Physico chemical parameters of the soil samples like pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese were analysed.

 

In the present investigation a total of 40 species of soil fungi were isolated from the soil sample and the maximum number of fungi isolates were recorded in Valangaiman (20) followed by Thiruvarur (18) Nannilam and Kudavasal (16). All these 40 species are belonged to (15) genera.

 

Generally topsoil contains high organic matter, which in the presence of adequate moisture supply, acted upon by the microorganisms to decompose the complex organic residues into simpler forms, hence, microbial populations are generally higher in the surface soil layer (Shamir and Steinberger, 2007) as compared to the lower depths. However, the distribution of soil microbial population is determined by a number of environmental factors like pH, Moisture content and soil organic matter (Kennedy et al., 2005). Higher fungal population during rainy and autumn season supported the findings of other workers (Arunachalam et al., 1997), which perhaps due to prevailing favorable moisture and temperature setting during the period. Litter and other plant residues are decomposed faster during rainy season and sufficient soil organic matter and humus accumulates that may have enhanced the colonization of the soil microbes in subsequent period.

 

The fungal populations were correlated with nitrogen levels and soil moisture (Lorgio et al.,1999) and they were statistically significant.

 

The abundance of microorganisms in soil varies spatially as well as temporarily, and this pattern is related to temporal and spatial variations in the quantity and quality of nutrients (Nedwell and Gray, 1987; wardle,1992). Microorganisms respond to nitrogen (Jenkins et al., 1988; Wardle, 1992) organic matter (Hussey et al., 1985; Jenkins et al., 1988; Lynch and Whipps 1990) and soil moisture (Bottner, 1985; Jenkins et al., 1988 wardle, 1992).

 


 

 

Table 1. Monthly variation of soil mycoflora in chilli field of Thiruvarur (Dt) (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

Mycoflora

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

Percentage

Frequency

1.

Absidia glauca

3.0

-

3.0

5

-

4

4.0

5.0

-

2.3

3.6

-

66.6

2.

Alternaria alternata

4.0

4.0

1.0

4.6

-

4.6

3.6

-

2.6

1.6

-

1.3

75.0

3.

Aspergillus conicus

4.0

-

2.0

4.0

-

4.3

3.3

3.0

1.6

-

4.6

2.0

75.0

4.

A. flavus

3.0

-

3.3

-

-

-

4.0

3.3

-

2.3

3.0

1.3

58.3

5.

A. niger

3.0

4.0

-

4.6

3.3

4.6

3.3

4.6

3.0

4.3

-

2.0

83.3

6.

A. terreus

4.0

2.0

-

3.3

3.0

4.6

3.0

3

-

-

2.6

1.6

75.0

7.

A. wenti

3.0

1.6

-

1.3

2.0

-

3.0

2.3

2.0

1.6

1.6

1.6

83.3

8.

Achrophilosphora fusispora

4.0

-

-

4.0

-

3.3

2.6

2.6

-

1.6

-

2.0

58.3

9.

Curvularia lunata

2.6

1.6

3.0

2.3

4.3

4.3

3.6

-

3.0

3.6

3.0

2.6

91.6

10.

Chaetomium sp

-

1.0

-

`-

-

1.3

2.3

2.6

3.3

3.0

1.6

3.0

66.6

11.

Fusarium oxysporum

3.0

-

-

3.3

4.6

4.6

3.3

-

3.0

3.0

1.6

3.0

66.6

12.

Helminthosporium oryzae

2.0

-

-

-

-

2.0

2.3

2.0

4.3

-

1.3

3.6

58.3

13.

Pencillium citrinum

2.0

-

3.6

5.3

-

4.0

4.3

1.3

3.3

3.0

-

-

66.6

14.

P. turbatum

3.0

-

-

4.6

4.0

3.3

4.0

-

-

4.0

2.0

4.3

66.6

15.

Pythium debaryanum

3.6

3.6

2.6

5.6

5.0

5.3

4.6

5.6

5.0

5.3

5.3

5.0

100

16.

Rhizopus sp

2.6

1.3

-

-

-

2.3

2.0

2.0

3.6

-

2.0

1.3

66.6

17.

Torula alli

1.0

1.0

2.4

1.3

1.3

1.6

-

1.0

-

1

1.3

2.0

83.3

18.

Trichoderma viride

1.0

-

-

1.3

-

-

2.0

-

-

-

1.3

-

33.3

 

Total no of colonies

48.8

20.1

20.9

50.5

27.5

54.1

55.2

38.3

34.7

36.6

33.2

35.9

 

 

Total no of species

17

9

8

14

8

15

17

13

11

13

13

15

 

 

 

 


Rani and Panneerselvam (2010) reported that the diversity and distribution of different organisms in the marine environment are influenced by the Physico-chemical properties of both water and the sendiments. Point calimere includes many diverse habitats such as sandy and muddy shores and mangroves which have various Physico-chemical features. A total of 59 fungal species were isolated from all four stations. In the present study a total of 40 soil fungi were isolated. However, a few fungal species were noticed in monthly variations of the years across the sites.

 

Senthilkumar et al., 2009 collected 15 soil samples from three different stations namely Koraiyar river head, Saradi, and Xavier munai along the Muthupet Mangroves in Tamilnadu and examined by dilution plating method on PDA medium to access fungal diversity and the population diversity. Out of 22 species screened the Aspergillus and Penicillium were represented as dominant one of each. In the present study also species like Aspergillus and Penicillium were common to all sites.

 

Danial Thomas et al., 2010 screened forty two species belonging to 11 genera in Shencottai (a small town in the South Western Tamilnadu bordering Kerala state). Compositional differences were observed and saprophytic species predominating in the litter layer. Most of the genera detected belonged to the Ascomycetes with a fewer proportion belonging to Deuteromycetes. In the present study about 40 different species belonging to Ascomycetes and Phycomycetes were isolated. However, only a few fungal species were noticed in monthly variations of the year across the sites.


 

Table 2. Monthly variation of soil mycoflora in chilli field of Nannilam Taluk (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

mycoflora

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

Percentage

Frequency

1.

Aspergillus awamori

-

3.0

-

2.6

2

3.5

4

2.6

2.2

-

2

1.3

75

2.

A. fumigatus

3.0

4.0

-

1.0

1.6

3.0

3.0

2.3

2.3

1.6

1.3

1.0

83.3

3.

A. granulosis

-

3.0

2.0

-

2.0

3.0

2.6

2.0

2.0

1.6

2.0

2.0

83.3

4.

A. niger

-

4.3

4.0

3.3

3.6

4.6

5.2

4.6

2.6

3.3

3.0

1.6

91.6

5.

A. ochraceous

-

-

1.0

1.6

-

2.6

3.3

2.0

-

-

2.0

1.6

58.3

6.

A. sydowi

3.3

-

1.6

2.0

-

3.0

5.0

2.0

-

2.0

2.6

-

66.6

7.

A. versicolar

2.6

3.5

3.0

-

-

2.6

2.0

1.0

1.6

-

2.0

1.6

75

8.

Curvularia geniculata

3.0

-

2.3

-

1.6

2.6

1.6

2.0

-

-

2.0

-

58.3

9.

Chaetomium globosum

2.6

-

-

2.0

3.0

2.3

1.0

1.0

1.3

-

-

1.0

66.6

10.

Fusarium semitectum

-

-

1.3

-

-

2.0

1.3

1.3

2.0

2.0

-

1.0

58.3

11.

Masoniella sp

2.0

-

-

1.3

-

-

-

1.0

-

-

-

1.3

33.3

12.

Penicillium chrysogenum

3.0

-

-

3.0

3.0

3.6

5.0

2.3

2.0

3.0

2.0

3.0

83.3

13.

P. janthinellum

-

2.0

3.0

3.3

3.3

2.6

4.0

3.0

2.0

-

-

3.3

75

14.

Pythium debaryanum

4

5.0

2.0

4.6

5.0

5.6

5.3

4.3

4.3

4.3

5.3

4.6

100

15.

Rhizopus nigricans

2.0

-

-

2.3

-

2.6

2.0

1.3

2.0

-

-

-

50

16.

Trichoderma harzianum

-

1.6

-

-

1.3

-

1.3

2.0

-

-

-

1.3

41.6

 

Total no. of colonies

25.5

26.5

20.2

27

26.4

43.6

46.6

34.7

24.3

17.8

24.2

24.6

 

 

Total no. of species

9

8

9

11

10

14

15

16

11

7

10

13

 

 

 

Table 3. Monthly variation of soil mycoflora in chilli field of Kudavasal (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

mycoflora

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

Percentage

Frequency

1.

Aspergillus conicus

2.0

-

-

1.3

-

2.0

2.0

2.3

1.0

-

3

2.3

66.6

2.

A. flavus

1.3

2.0

1.3

-

-

2.3

1.3

1.6

2.3

2.0

-

2.0

75

3.

A.humicola

2.0

-

-

1.0

-

2.0

2.0

1.6

1.3

2.6

-

1.6

66.6

4.

A. flavipes

-

1.6

2.0

-

-

2.3

1.3

1.3

2.3

-

1.3

1.6

66.6

5.

A. nidulans

-

1.6

2.0

1.3

2.0

3.3

2.6

2.0

-

2.0

1.0

2.3

83.3

6.

A. sulphureus

-

1.3

1.3

2.3

-

-

1.3

2.3

1.0

-

3.0

2.3

66.6

7.

A. versicolar

2.3

-

1.3

1.6

2.0

3.3

2.6

2.0

2.3

1.6

2.0

-

83.3

8.

Curvularia lunata

2.6

1.6

-

2.0

-

2.0

3.3

2.3

1.6

-

1.3

2.6

75

9.

C. geniculata

1.3

1.3

2.0

2.0

2.6

2.6

1.6

1.6

2.0

2.0

-

-

83.3

10.

Chaetomium globosum

2.0

2.0

-

-

1.3

3.0

2.0

-

1.6

-

3.0

-

58.3

11.

Fusarium oxysporum

-

-

-

1.6

1.3

3.6

1.6

2.0

1.6

-

-

-

50

12.

Penicillium citrinum

2.3

2.0

1.6

-

2.0

2.6

2.0

2.3

-

3.0

1.6

2.3

83.3

13.

P. turbatum

-

-

1.3

2.6

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.3

2.3

-

-

2.6

66.6

14.

Pythium debaryanum

3.6

3.6

3.0

3.6

3.0

4.0

5.0

5.3

4.3

4.3

5.0

-

91.6

15.

Rhizopus nigricans

1.3

-

1.6

2.0

-

2.6

1.3

-

-

1.3

1.6

2.0

66.6

16.

Syncephalastrum sp.

-

1.6

-

-

1.3

2.6

1.6

2.3

-

-

-

1.3

50

 

Total no. of colonies

20.7

18.6

17.4

21.3

17.5

40.2

33.5

31.2

23.6

18.8

22.8

22.9

 

 

Total no. of species

10

10

10

11

9

15

16

14

12

8

10

11

 

 

Table 4. Monthly variation of soil mycoflora in chilli field of Valangaiman (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

Mycoflora

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

Percentage

Frequency

1.

Absidia glauca

1.6

-

1.6

-

2.0

2.6

3

2.6

1.6

-

3.3

2.3

75

2.

Alternaria alternata

-

3.0

-

2.6

2.6

3.3

2.6

2.0

-

3.6

2.0

-

66.6

3.

Aspergillus awamori

-

-

2.0

-

-

2.0

3.6

2.3

-

-

2.0

2.0

50

4.

A. flavus

2.0

1.3

-

2.6

2.0

3.0

3.0

2.6

-

1.3.

3.0

-

75

5.

A. fumigatus

-

2.3

2.0

-

3.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

-

2.6

1.6

-

66.6

6.

A. humicola

3.0

-

3.0

-

-

1.3

2.3

2.0

-

2.0

-

3.6

58.3

7.

A. luchuensis

2.6

2.3

-

-

-

2.3

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.6

3.0

1.3

75

8.

A. nidulans

-

2.0

1.3

3.0

1.6

3.0

2.3

2.3

2.3

-

3.6

3.0

83.3

9.

A. niger

3.0

-

3.0

3.0

3.6

4.0

-

2.6

1.3

4.0

2.3

2.6

83.3

10.

A. ochraceous

2.0

2.0

-

-

2.3

1.6

2.0

2.0

-

-

4.0

2.0

66.6

11.

A. sydowi

3.3

-

2.3

2.0

2.3

2.0

3.3

2.6

2.0

3.0

-

-

75

12.

A. sulphureus

-

2.3

2.0

-

-

2.0

2.6

3.0

1.3

-

3.6

-

58.3

13.

A. terreus

-

-

-

1.3

2.6

1.6

2.0

1.6

2.3

3.6

1.3

2.3

75

14.

Curvularia lunata

1.3

2.0

3.0

-

-

2.3

-

2.0

2.0

1.6

2.0

-

66.6

15.

Fusarium oxysporum

-

2.3

-

1.3

1.3

1.6

2.3

2.3

2.3

-

-

2.6

66.6

16.

Helminthosporium oryzae

2.3

-

2.0

-

2.3

2.3

3.0

2.6

-

2.0

2.0

3.3

75

17.

Penicillium citrinum

-

3.3

3.3

-

3.3

1.6

2.6

2.3

2.6

3.0

-

-

66.6

18.

P. funiculosum

2.6

-

-

2.6

2.6

3.0

3.4

3.0

1.6

1.3

3.0

3.3

83.3

19.

P. turbatum

3.3

3.0

2.6

3.0

-

2.0

2.6

1.6

2.0

-

2.0

-

75

20.

Pythium debaryanum

5

3

4.3

4.3

5

4.6

4.1

4.3

4.1

4.6

4.0

2.4

100

21.

Trichoderma koeninji

-

-

-

1.3

2

-

1.3

1.6

1.0

1.1

-

-

50

 

Total no. of colonies

32

28.8

32.4

27

38.5

47.1

50

50.3

28.4

36.5

42.7

30.7

 

 

Total no. of species

12

12

13

11

15

20

19

21

14

14

16

12

 

 

 

Table 1. Physico-chemical parameters of chilli field soil in Thiruvarur Taluk (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

Parameters

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

1.

pH

7.32

7.46

7.52

7.98

8.26

7.45

7.68

7.62

7.59

7.56

7.54

7.58

2.

Ec(dsm-1)

0.21

0.42

0.23

0.95

1.26

0.52

0.46

0.46

0.45

0.54

0.43

0.51

3.

Organic carbon(%)

Organic matter

0.18

0.31

0.32

0.55

0.22

0.37

0.46

0.79

0.58

0.99

0.54

0.93

0.45

0.77

0.39

0.67

0.36

0.62

0.23

0.39

0.32

0.55

0.28

0.48

4.

Available nitrogen(Kg/ac)

86.2

92.1

96.3

110.2

126.3

142.6

109.2

122.3

112.2

110.5

107.3

114.2

5.

Available phosphorus(Kg/ac)

3.13

3.21

3.25

4.56

4.69

4.58

5.25

4.50

4.75

4.50

4.38

4.56

6.

Available potassium(Kg/ac)

132

121

111

145

163

145

180

179

189

165

182

154

7.

Available zinc(ppm)

0.52

0.61

0.63

0.96

1.23

1.25

1.19

1.12

1.06

1.23

1.12

1.26

8.

Available copper(ppm)

0.72

0.79

0.85

1.26

1.23

1.36

1.12

1.26

1.22

1.20

1.12

1.24

9.

Available iron(ppm)

2.41

2.58

2.65

4.56

4.56

4.69

9.58

9.63

9.56

9.64

9.43

9.53

10.

Available manganese(ppm)

1.38

1.58

1.69

2.69

3.15

3.68

3.25

3.56

3.26

3.21

3.12

3.34

11.

Fine sand(%)

42.25

45.35

42.35

45.69

45.05

44.12

45.63

43.56

42.69

45.63

44.32

45.53

12.

Coarse sand(%)

21.35

22.16

23.16

20.35

18.96

21.12

22.45

23.65

22.56

25.69

21.45

25.59

13.

Silt(%)

16.35

18.58

19.65

16.58

21.65

15.69

18.45

19.65

18.96

20.16

16.65

20.13

14.

Clay(%)

13.79

14.33

14.84

17.38

14.33

19.07

13.47

13.14

15.79

8.52

13.79

8.56

15.

Cation exchange Capacity(Mole Protein+/Kg)

12.6

17.6

12.3

19.6

18.6

20.3

24.6

23.2

22.6

21.6

21.2

21.9

16.

Calcium

5.8

6.2

6.5

9.6

9.6

10.6

14.6

14.2

13.6

12.6

11.6

12.2

17.

Magnesium

6.2

10.3

6.5

7.6

8.6

8.6

12.6

11.21

10.3

10.3

9.2

8.2

18.

Sodium

0.41

0.51

0.56

1.56

1.69

1.58

2.75

2.22

2.56

2.36

2.23

2.46

19.

Potassium

0.21.

0.26

0.21

0.26

0.36

0.36

0.26

0.18

0.26

0.23

0.23

0.21

Statistical Report: Statistically not significant at 0.05% level.

 

Table 2. Physico-chemical parameters of chilli field soil in Nannilam Taluk (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

Parameters

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

1.

pH

7.31

7.46

7.45

7.89

8.15

7.56

7.69

7.56

7.46

7.96

7.98

7.56

2.

Ec(dsm-1)

0.22

0.32

0.21

0.87

1.15

0.38

0.36

0.22

0.26

0.42

0.48

0.38

3.

Organic carbon(%)

Organic matter

0.26

0.44

0.42

0.72

0.26

0.44

0.48

0.82

0.56

0.96

0.39

0.67

0.36

0.62

0.30

0.51

0.29

0.49

0.36

0.62

0.22

0.37

0.31

0.53

4.

Available nitrogen(Kg/ac)

97.4

98.1

98.5

114.6

112.3

128.9

112.5

110.5

97.6

106.3

115.3

96.5

5.

Available phosphorus(Kg/ac)

3.45

3.56

3.65

4.26

4.58

4.96

4.50

4.25

4.50

4.75

4.35

4.65

6.

Available potassium(Kg/ac)

102

116

112

142

158

163

165

163

156

155

146

153

7.

Available zinc(ppm)

0.32

0.43

0.58

1.02

1.56

1.20

1.22

1.08

1.12

1.20

1.04

1.13

8.

Available copper(ppm)

0.53

0.65

0.68

1.23

1.25

1.52

1.25

1.25

1.32

1.09

1.22

1.35

9.

Available iron(ppm)

2.36

4.22

2.48

4.26

4.29

4.35

8.75

8.49

8.46

8.79

8.25

8.68

10.

Available manganese(ppm)

1.37

1.45

1.57

2.56

3.65

3.62

3.45

3.26

3.15

3.56

3.46

3.49

11.

Fine sand(%)

44.13

42.12

41.20

45.12

44.23

45.23

42.65

42.58

45.26

48.54

42.48

48.32

12.

Coarse sand(%)

21.45

22.46

23.65

21.30

17.69

21.36

21.36

22.48

24.56

24.57

24.48

24.37

13.

Silt(%)

16.79

17.45

17.89

17.56

22.35

16.68

19.39

18.65

17.89

21.36

21.46

22.15

14.

Clay(%)

15.52

16.43

17.26

15.52

15.73

16.73

19.60

16.29

12.63

5.53

16.63

12.23

15.

Cation exchange Capacity(Mole Protein+/Kg)

12.6

13.3

13.6

18.6

19.3

19.6

23.4

22.5

21.6

20.5

21.3

20.4

16.

Calcium

6.9

7.1

7.3

8.9

9.5

10.8

12.8

13.6

12.6

13.2

13.3

13.8

17.

Magnesium

8.2

7.3

6.3

7.5

8.7

8.4

12.8

12.3

9.8

10.8

9.5

12.6

18.

Sodium

0.38

0.41

0.48

1.29

1.89

1.69

2.79

2.16

2.45

2.54

2.35

2.46

19.

Potassium

0.18

0.32

0.32

0.32

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.19

0.25

0.25

0.19

0.32

Statistical Report:

The Correlation coefficient between the physico-chemical character and TNS (Total No Species). The positive correlation were observed between TNS and APO (Available Potassium) (0.6210.05), TNS and CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) (0.6210.05).

 

Table 3 . Physico-chemical parameters of chilli field soil in Kudavasal Taluk (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

Parameters

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

1.

pH

7.18

7.36

7.36

8.15

8.69

8.16

8.06

7.98

7.98

8.12

8.15

8.16

2.

Ec(dsm-1)

0.32

0.39

0.36

0.69

1.36

0.36

0.32

0.36

0.35

0.39

0.32

0.38

3.

Organic carbon(%)

Organic matter

0.29

0.49

0.35

0.60

0.28

0.48

0.52

0.89

0.58

0.99

0.41

0.70

0.42

0.72

0.35

0.60

0.34

0.58

0.29

0.49

0.28

0.48

0.39

0.67

4.

Available nitrogen(Kg/ac)

93.8

87.6

87.6

123.5

126.8

136.5

110.4

116.3

93.8

102.4

91.7

108.4

5.

Available phosphorus(Kg/ac)

3.30

3.45

3.48

4.36

4.26

4.78

5.36

3.75

3.50

3.75

3.10

3.65

6.

Available potassium(Kg/ac)

112

132

113

152

149

152

180

182

178

132

162

152

7.

Available zinc(ppm)

0.45

0.55

0.65

1.06

1.45

1.06

1.36

1.26

1.23

1.21

1.23

1.33

8.

Available copper(ppm)

0.47

0.57

0.57

1.15

1.48

1.45

1.26

1.23

1.20

1.45

1.13

1.58

9.

Available iron(ppm)

2.45

4.12

2.65

4.21

4.36

4.28

8.46

8.78

8.46

8.65

8.36

8.75

10.

Available manganese(ppm)

1.29

2.34

1.49

2.54

3.45

3.18

3.25

3.54

3.25

3.15

3.14

3.49

11.

Fine sand(%)

41.26

41.36

43.69

45.78

43.65

43.26

43.12

46.35

41.36

47.50

43.26

46.50

12.

Coarse sand(%)

21.12

23.17

24.69

20.14

18.69

21.27

23.15

21.65

21.23

26.34

21.27

26.54

13.

Silt(%)

17.46

18.34

18.64

18.64

20.36

17.26

18.45

17.56

17.56

15.16

17.26

15.56

14.

Clay(%)

11.38

12.38

12.98

15.44

17.30

18.21

15.28

14.44

19.85

11.00

19.38

14.3

15.

Cation exchange Capacity(Mole Protein+/Kg)

14.2

15.2

15.2

17.5

17.9

21.3

24.5

23.4

22.8

21.8

6.9

7.9

16.

Calcium

5.9

6..3

6.9

9.4

10.2

11.2

14.6

14.2

12.3

15.6

11.3

16.6

17.

Magnesium

5.7

6.3

6.7

7.9

9.6

8.9

11.5

10.3

9.6

11.2

10.7

11.6

18.

Sodium

0.15

0.25

0.35

1.48

1.85

1.78

2.89

2.35

2.22

2.19

2.12

2.16

19.

Potassium

0.15

0.18

0.25

0.25

0.34

0.16

0.28

0.22

0.19

0.26

0.26

0.29

Statistical Report

The Correlation coefficient between the physico-chemical character and TNS (Total No Species). The positive correlation were observed between TNS and AP (Available Phosphorus) (0.6830.05), TNS and APO (Available Potassium) (0.6470.05).

 

Table 4. Physico-chemical parameters of chilli field soil in Valangaiman (June 2009-May 2010)

S.

No.

Name of the

Parameters

Jun

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May

1.

pH

7.39

7.56

7.59

8.26

8.45

7.52

7.49

7.46

7.48

7.25

7.38

7.28

2.

Ec(dsm-1)

0.42

0.49

0.32

0.89

1.25

0.46

0.44

0.45

0.42

0.42

0..79

0.49

3.

Organic carbon(%)

Organic matter

0.24

0.41

0.31

0.53

0.24

0.41

0.42

0.72

0.54

0.93

0.38

0.65

0.36

0.62

0.32

0.55

0.28

0.48

0.31

0.53

0.32

0.55

0.24

0.41

4.

Available nitrogen(Kg/ac)

85.3

95.3

84.5

126.5

136.5

132.5

116.3

114.2

95.6

106.3

93.3

82.3

5.

Available phosphorus(Kg/ac)

3.75

4.75

3.15

4.23

4.19

4.51

4.25

4.0

3.75

3.25

3.35

3.45

6.

Available potassium(Kg/ac)

143

153

118

146

156

148

160

156

146

148

136

123

7.

Available zinc(ppm)

0.37

1.15

0.67

1.12

1.23

1.24

1.23

1.12

1.05

1.25

1.01

1.13

8.

Available copper(ppm)

0.69

1.24

0.79

1.06

1.12

1.32

1.20

1.24

1.25

1.36

1.15

1.11

9.

Available iron(ppm)

2.18

9.13

2.48

4.36

4.18

4.67

9.50

9.56

9.16

9.62

9.26

9.32

10.

Available manganese(ppm)

1.32

2.35

1.52

2.65

3.29

3.59

3.82

3.89

3.65

3.63

3.39

3.93

11.

Fine sand(%)

41.16

42.32

42.72

41.26

44.58

41.25

44.12

45.12

48.62

46.23

44.62

45.72

12.

Coarse sand(%)

21.16

24.26

21.36

22.01

17.68

21.45

22.13

24.36

2.06

24.87

21.36

24.97

13.

Silt(%)

18.29

16.42

16.78

18.69

24.65

18.26

19.23

18.62

18.69

21.36

18.74

21.46

14.

Clay(%)

17.12

18.01

19.14

18.04

13.09

19.04

14.52

11.90

11.63

7.54

7.83

7.13

15.

Cation exchange Capacity(Mole Protein+/Kg)

14.1

18.3

14.2

19.3

19.5

21.5

27.6

26.5

25.6

26.3

21.2

26.6

16.

Calcium

10.3

13.2

7.0

9.5

10.6

10.6

15.6

11.5

10.6

13.2

10.3

13.9

17.

Magnesium

6.2

8.2

6.9

7.4

9.2

9.3

13.2

12.3

11.2

10.3

8.4

12.6

18.

Sodium

0.37

1.33

0.67

1.63

1.75

1.67

2.98

2.49

2.56

2.57

2.19

2.69

19.

Potassium

0.13

0.23

0.14

0.36

0.26

0.32

0.26

0.23

0.24

0.24

0.16

0.34

Statistical Report: Statistically not significant at 0.05% level.

 

 


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Received on 02.09.2011 Accepted on 21.09.2011

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Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 1(4): Oct.-Dec. 2011; Page 117-122